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      Community Influences on Married Women’s Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis

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      Archives of Sexual Behavior

      Springer Nature

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          Most cited references 39

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          Understanding the impact of a microfinance-based intervention on women's empowerment and the reduction of intimate partner violence in South Africa.

          We sought to obtain evidence about the scope of women's empowerment and the mechanisms underlying the significant reduction in intimate partner violence documented by the Intervention With Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity (IMAGE) cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. The IMAGE intervention combined a microfinance program with participatory training on understanding HIV infection, gender norms, domestic violence, and sexuality. Outcome measures included past year's experience of intimate partner violence and 9 indicators of women's empowerment. Qualitative data about changes occurring within intimate relationships, loan groups, and the community were also collected. After 2 years, the risk of past-year physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner was reduced by more than half (adjusted risk ratio=0.45; 95% confidence interval=0.23, 0.91). Improvements in all 9 indicators of empowerment were observed. Reductions in violence resulted from a range of responses enabling women to challenge the acceptability of violence, expect and receive better treatment from partners, leave abusive relationships, and raise public awareness about intimate partner violence. Our findings, both qualitative and quantitative, indicate that economic and social empowerment of women can contribute to reductions in intimate partner violence.
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            Relationship power, condom use and HIV risk among women in the USA.

            Women's ability to negotiate safer sexual practices, particularly condom use, is a vital component of HIV/STD prevention strategies. Gender-based power imbalances may constrain women's negotiation ability, yet few empirical studies have tested the hypothesis that sexual relationship power constitutes a key factor in condom use negotiation. In this investigation, a new measure - the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) - was applied. Data were collected from 388, mostly Latina, women at an urban community health centre in Massachusetts. Women with high levels of relationship power were five times as likely as women with low levels to report consistent condom use, after controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables (p < 0.05). Population attributable risk estimates indicate that 52% of the lack of consistent condom use among women can be attributed to low sexual relationship power. The strong association between the Sexual Relationship Power Scale and consistent condom use supports the hypothesis that relationship power plays a key role in safer sex decision making. These findings underscore the importance of including the issue of relationship power in the design and implementation of programmes that promote sexual and reproductive health, as well as research investigating condom use and HIV risk.
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              Neighborhood context and youth cardiovascular health behaviors.

              This study sought to determine the relationships between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and cardiovascular health behaviors among youths and whether neighborhood characteristics are associated with such behaviors independently of individual characteristics. Linear models determined the effects of individual and neighborhood characteristics (SES, social disorganization, racial/ethnic minority concentration, urbanization) on dietary habits, physical activity, and smoking among 8165 youths aged 12 to 21 years. Low SES was associated with poorer dietary habits, less physical activity, and higher odds of smoking. After adjustment for SES, Black race was associated with poorer dietary habits and lower odds of smoking. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with healthier dietary habits, lower levels of physical activity, and lower odds of smoking than non-Hispanic ethnicity. Low neighborhood SES and high neighborhood social disorganization were independently associated with poorer dietary habits, while high neighborhood Hispanic concentration and urbanicity were associated with healthier dietary habits. Neighborhood characteristics were not associated with physical activity or smoking. Changes in neighborhood social structures and policies that reduce social inequalities may enhance cardiovascular health behaviors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Archives of Sexual Behavior
                Arch Sex Behav
                Springer Nature
                0004-0002
                1573-2800
                February 2016
                July 11 2015
                : 45
                : 2
                : 383-393
                Article
                10.1007/s10508-015-0572-7
                © 2015

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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