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      Recent developments in time-of-flight PET

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          Abstract

          While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping power and limited spatial resolution (caused by limited light output of the scintillators), these systems could not compete with bismuth germanate (BGO)-based PET scanners. Developments on TOF system were limited for about a decade but started again around 2000. The combination of fast photomultipliers, scintillators with high density, modern electronics, and faster computing power for image reconstruction have made it possible to introduce this principle in clinical TOF-PET systems. This paper reviews recent developments in system design, image reconstruction, corrections, and the potential in new applications for TOF-PET. After explaining the basic principles of time-of-flight, the difficulties in detector technology and electronics to obtain a good and stable timing resolution are shortly explained. The available clinical systems and prototypes under development are described in detail. The development of this type of PET scanner also requires modified image reconstruction with accurate modeling and correction methods. The additional dimension introduced by the time difference motivates a shift from sinogram- to listmode-based reconstruction. This reconstruction is however rather slow and therefore rebinning techniques specific for TOF data have been proposed. The main motivation for TOF-PET remains the large potential for image quality improvement and more accurate quantification for a given number of counts. The gain is related to the ratio of object size and spatial extent of the TOF kernel and is therefore particularly relevant for heavy patients, where image quality degrades significantly due to increased attenuation (low counts) and high scatter fractions. The original calculations for the gain were based on analytical methods. Recent publications for iterative reconstruction have shown that it is difficult to quantify TOF gain into one factor. The gain depends on the measured distribution, the location within the object, and the count rate. In a clinical situation, the gain can be used to either increase the standardized uptake value (SUV) or reduce the image acquisition time or administered dose. The localized nature of the TOF kernel makes it possible to utilize local tomography reconstruction or to separate emission from transmission data. The introduction of TOF also improves the joint estimation of transmission and emission images from emission data only. TOF is also interesting for new applications of PET-like isotopes with low branching ratio for positron fraction. The local nature also reduces the need for fine angular sampling, which makes TOF interesting for limited angle situations like breast PET and online dose imaging in proton or hadron therapy. The aim of this review is to introduce the reader in an educational way into the topic of TOF-PET and to give an overview of the benefits and new opportunities in using this additional information.

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          Performance of Philips Gemini TF PET/CT scanner with special consideration for its time-of-flight imaging capabilities.

          Results from a new PET/CT scanner using lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals for the PET component are presented. This scanner, which operates in a fully 3-dimensional mode, has a diameter of 90 cm and an axial field of view of 18 cm. It uses 4 x 4 x 22 mm(3) LYSO crystals arranged in a pixelated Anger-logic detector design. This scanner was designed to perform as a high-performance conventional PET scanner as well as provide good timing resolution to operate as a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner. Performance measurements on the scanner were made using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU2-2001 procedures to benchmark its conventional imaging capabilities. The scatter fraction and noise equivalent count (NEC) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20-cm diameter) were repeated for 2 larger cylinders (27-cm and 35-cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. New measurements were designed to characterize its intrinsic timing resolution capability, which defines its TOF performance. Additional measurements to study the impact of pulse pileup at high counting rates on timing, as well as energy and spatial, resolution were also performed. Finally, to characterize the effect of TOF reconstruction on lesion contrast and noise, the standard NEMA/International Electrotechnical Commission torso phantom as well as a large 35-cm-diameter phantom with both hot and cold spheres were imaged for varying scan times. The transverse and axial resolution near the center is 4.8 mm. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner measured with a 70-cm-long line source is 6.6 cps/kBq, whereas scatter fraction is 27% measured with a 70-cm-long line source in a 20-cm-diameter cylinder. For the same line source cylinder, the peak NEC rate is measured to be 125 kcps at an activity concentration of 17.4 kBq/mL (0.47 microCi/mL). The 2 larger cylinders showed a decrease in the peak NEC due to increased attenuation, scatter, and random coincidences, and the peak occurs at lower activity concentrations. The system coincidence timing resolution was measured to be 585 ps. The timing resolution changes as a function of the singles rate due to pulse pileup and could impact TOF image reconstruction. Image-quality measurements with the torso phantom show that very high quality images can be obtained with short scan times (1-2 min per bed position). However, the benefit of TOF is more apparent with the large 35-cm-diameter phantom, where small spheres are detectable only with TOF information for short scan times. The Gemini TF whole-body scanner represents the first commercially available fully 3-dimensional PET scanner that achieves TOF capability as well as conventional imaging capabilities. The timing resolution is also stable over a long duration, indicating the practicality of this device. Excellent image quality is achieved for whole-body studies in 10-30 min, depending on patient size. The most significant improvement with TOF is seen for the heaviest patients.
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            Design and performance evaluation of a whole-body Ingenuity TF PET-MRI system.

            The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI is a newly released whole-body hybrid PET-MR imaging system with a Philips time-of-flight GEMINI TF PET and Achieva 3T X-series MRI system. Compared to PET-CT, modifications to the positron emission tomography (PET) gantry were made to avoid mutual system interference and deliver uncompromising performance which is equivalent to the standalone systems. The PET gantry was redesigned to introduce magnetic shielding for the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Stringent electromagnetic noise requirements of the MR system necessitated the removal of PET gantry electronics to be housed in the PET-MR equipment room. We report the standard NEMA measurements for the PET scanner. PET imaging and performance measurements were done at Geneva University Hospital as described in the NEMA Standards NU 2-2007 manual. The scatter fraction (SF) and noise equivalent count rate (NECR) measurements with the NEMA cylinder (20 cm diameter) were repeated for two larger cylinders (27 cm and 35 cm diameter), which better represent average and heavy patients. A NEMA/IEC torso phantom was used for overall assessment of image quality. The transverse and axial resolution near the center was 4.7 mm. Timing and energy resolution of the PET-MR system were measured to be 525 ps and 12%, respectively. The results were comparable to PET-CT systems demonstrating that the effect of design modifications required on the PET system to remove the harmful effect of the magnetic field on the PMTs was negligible. The absolute sensitivity of this scanner was 7.0 cps kBq(-1), whereas SF was 26%. NECR measurements performed with cylinders having three different diameters, and image quality measurements performed with IEC phantom yielded excellent results. The Ingenuity TF PET-MRI represents the first commercial whole-body hybrid PET-MRI system. The performance of the PET subsystem was comparable to the GEMINI TF PET-CT system using phantom and patient studies. It is conceived that advantages of hybrid PET-MRI will become more evident in the near future.
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              Time of flight in pet revisited

               W.W. Moses (2003)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Stefaan.Vandenberghe@Ugent.be
                Journal
                EJNMMI Phys
                EJNMMI Phys
                EJNMMI Physics
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2197-7364
                16 February 2016
                16 February 2016
                December 2016
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [ ]ELIS-IMINDS-Medical IT-IBITECH Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Blok B, Gent, 9000 Belgium
                [ ]Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA
                Article
                138
                10.1186/s40658-016-0138-3
                4754240
                26879863
                © Vandenberghe et al. 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                reconstruction, pet, time-of-flight

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