Background: Serum leptin levels are increased in chronic renal failure (CRF) and may potentially contribute to protein malnutrition in this disorder. Method: Following a cross-sectional design, we performed a nutritional survey in a wide sample of uremic patients treated conservatively (n = 87), with peritoneal dialysis (n = 71) and with hemodialysis (n = 53). Then, we analyzed the correlation between serum leptin levels and markers of protein malnutrition. We used a multivariate approach, taking into consideration the confounding effect of other factors on the correlation between hyperleptinemia and protein malnutrition. Main Results: Both univariate and multivariate analysis disclosed a poor correlation between hyperleptinemia and markers of protein malnutrition. In fact, there were trends to a positive correlation between leptinemia and body protein stores, as estimated from the scrutinized markers. Persistence of the basic correlation between general intake, fat mass and leptin in CRF could partially explain these findings, but neither a negative correlation between leptin levels nor protein nutritional state could be disclosed after controlling for this factor. Conclusions: Our results do not support a first-line role for hyperleptinemia in the genesis of protein malnutrition of uremia.