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      Hyperleptinemia Is Not Correlated with Markers of Protein Malnutrition in Chronic Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Background: Serum leptin levels are increased in chronic renal failure (CRF) and may potentially contribute to protein malnutrition in this disorder. Method: Following a cross-sectional design, we performed a nutritional survey in a wide sample of uremic patients treated conservatively (n = 87), with peritoneal dialysis (n = 71) and with hemodialysis (n = 53). Then, we analyzed the correlation between serum leptin levels and markers of protein malnutrition. We used a multivariate approach, taking into consideration the confounding effect of other factors on the correlation between hyperleptinemia and protein malnutrition. Main Results: Both univariate and multivariate analysis disclosed a poor correlation between hyperleptinemia and markers of protein malnutrition. In fact, there were trends to a positive correlation between leptinemia and body protein stores, as estimated from the scrutinized markers. Persistence of the basic correlation between general intake, fat mass and leptin in CRF could partially explain these findings, but neither a negative correlation between leptin levels nor protein nutritional state could be disclosed after controlling for this factor. Conclusions: Our results do not support a first-line role for hyperleptinemia in the genesis of protein malnutrition of uremia.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Factors predicting malnutrition in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

          Signs of protein-energy malnutrition are common in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the nutritional status and relationship between various parameters used for assessing malnutrition, we performed a cross-sectional study in 128 unselected patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) thrice weekly for at least two weeks. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA). Body weight, skinfold thicknesses converted into % body fat mass (BFM), mid-arm muscle circumference, hand-grip strength and several laboratory values, including serum albumin (SA1b), plasma insulin-like growth factor I (p-IGF-I), serum C-reactive protein (SCRP) and plasma free amino acids, were recorded. Dose of dialysis and protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) were evaluated by urea kinetic modeling. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on SGNA: group I, normal nutritional status (36%); group II, mild malnutrition (51%); and group III, moderate or (in 2 cases) severe malnutrition (13%). Clinical factors associated with malnutrition were: high age, presence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. nPNA and Kt/V(urea) were similar in the three groups. However, when normalized to desirable body wt, both were lower in groups II and III than in group I. Anthropometric factors associated with malnutrition were low body wt, skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and handgrip strength. Biochemical factors associated with malnutrition were low serum levels of albumin and creatinine and low plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine and valine). The serum albumin (SAlb) level was not only a predictor of nutritional status, but was independently influenced by age, sex and SCRP. Plasma IGF-1 levels also reflected the presence and severity of malnutrition and appeared to be more closely associated than SAlb with anthropometric and biochemical indices of somatic protein mass. Elevated SCRP (> 20 mg/liter), which mainly reflected the presence of infection/inflammation and was associated with hypoalbuminemia, was more common in malnourished patients than in patients with normal nutritional status, and also more common in elderly than in younger patients. Plasma amino acid levels, with the possible exception of the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine), seem to be poor predictors of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients.
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            Low leptin gene expression and hyperleptinemia in chronic renal failure.

            The ob gene product leptin is thought to be a key regulator of food intake and body weight. Patients having advanced chronic renal failure (CRF) have markedly higher serum leptin levels. It is not known whether the increase in leptin levels in CRF is caused by a decreased plasma clearance and/or increased production. In the present study serum leptin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were measured in 219 patients having various degrees of renal failure. In addition, serum leptin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and ob gene expression (by in situ hybridization histochemistry) were determined in 15 patients with advanced CRF. Seven of the patients were re-evaluated following 12 months of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment. Serum leptin levels correlated negatively to GFR (r = -0.26; P 25 mg/liter than in 10 patients with CRP < 25 mg/liter. Following 12 months of PD, the amount of body fat increased by 30% while the ob gene expression remained unchanged. The present study shows a correlation between serum leptin levels and GFR, and our results suggest that elevated leptin levels, due to a decreased plasma clearance, down-regulate the expression of the ob gene. We also found that an ongoing inflammation stimulates ob gene expression in patients with CRF. Therefore, it is suggested that the hyperleptinemia induced feedback inhibition of ob gene expression is overcome by inflammatory cytokines.
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              Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates

               R E Ostlund (1996)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2000
                November 2000
                08 November 2000
                : 86
                : 3
                : 274-280
                Affiliations
                aNephrology, bEndocrinology and cLaboratory Units, Hospital Juan Canalejo, and dDepartment of Medicine, University of La Coruña, Spain
                Article
                45781 Nephron 2000;86:274–280
                10.1159/000045781
                11096283
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 6, References: 39, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45781
                Categories
                Original Paper

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