We aimed to develop and validate Kinyarwanda versions of Short-Form Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (SF-LDQ) and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) to measure the frequency and severity of dyspepsia and associated quality-of-life impact in Rwanda.
200 consecutive Kinyarwanda-speaking patients referred to endoscopy (100 patients) or medical outpatients (100 patients).
Kinyarwanda versions of the SF-LDQ and SF-NDI were developed from English versions by translation, with back translation, crosschecking and pilot testing. Study participants completed these questionnaires at enrolment (time 1), and then completed the surveys again with blinded phone interviewers 3 days later (time 2). 20 randomly selected participants, diagnosed with a peptic ulcer on index endoscopy, completed a third survey by phone at day 30 (time 3), after therapy.
Internal consistency at time 1 (by Cronbach's α) and test–retest reliability between time 1 and time 2 (Spearman's correlation coefficient) for translated SF-LDQ and SF-NDI; validity versus clinical diagnosis (by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve) and responsiveness to treatment for SF-LDQ (by change in mean score). All outcomes were measured as per protocol.
Cronbach's α of the translated SF-LDQ was 0.93, showing high internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient comparing time 1 and time 2 was 0.978 (p<0.001), demonstrating high reliability. Cronbach's α for the translated SF-NDI was 0.92. A cut-off score of 16 on the SF-LDQ showed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 71% for the diagnosis of dyspepsia, correctly classifying 89% of patients. In the responsiveness analysis, the mean SF-LDQ score was reduced from 20.1 prior to treatment to 13.9 after 30 days of treatment (p=0.003).