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      First record of Monotaxis heterodon (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Lethrinidae) from the lagoon waters of Mischief Reef, South China Sea

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      Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Monotaxis heterodon (Bleeker, 1854) is widespread in the Indo-Pacific Ocean, however, it was reported that Monotaxis grandoculis (Forsskål, 1775) was the single species of Monotaxis in this area. We collected four M. heterodon specimens from the lagoon waters of Mischief Reef in South China Sea. A morphometric study was taken to confirm the occurrence of M. heterodon in the seawaters of the South China Sea and thoroughly separate them from M. grandoculis. In addition, DNA barcoding was taken for the classification of specimens. The mean genetic distance within M. heterodon group was 0.24 percentage points, group mean distance between M. heterodon and M. grandoculis was 8.71 percentage points. The phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of M. heterodon in the lagoon waters of the South China Sea. This study will contribute to species identification within this genus distributed in the South China Sea.

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Universal primer cocktails for fish DNA barcoding

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              Cryptic Diversity in Indo-Pacific Coral-Reef Fishes Revealed by DNA-Barcoding Provides New Support to the Centre-of-Overlap Hypothesis

              Diversity in coral reef fishes is not evenly distributed and tends to accumulate in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). The comprehension of the mechanisms that initiated this pattern is in its infancy despite its importance for the conservation of coral reefs. Considering the IMPA either as an area of overlap or a cradle of marine biodiversity, the hypotheses proposed to account for this pattern rely on extant knowledge about taxonomy and species range distribution. The recent large-scale use of standard molecular data (DNA barcoding), however, has revealed the importance of taking into account cryptic diversity when assessing tropical biodiversity. We DNA barcoded 2276 specimens belonging to 668 coral reef fish species through a collaborative effort conducted concomitantly in both Indian and Pacific oceans to appraise the importance of cryptic diversity in species with an Indo-Pacific distribution range. Of the 141 species sampled on each side of the IMPA, 62 presented no spatial structure whereas 67 exhibited divergent lineages on each side of the IMPA with K2P distances ranging between 1% and 12%, and 12 presented several lineages with K2P distances ranging between 3% and 22%. Thus, from this initial pool of 141 nominal species with Indo-Pacific distribution, 79 dissolved into 165 biological units among which 162 were found in a single ocean. This result is consistent with the view that the IMPA accumulates diversity as a consequence of its geological history, its location on the junction between the two main tropical oceans and the presence of a land bridge during glacial times in the IMPA that fostered allopatric divergence and secondary contacts between the Indian and Pacific oceans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria
                AIeP
                Pensoft Publishers
                1734-1515
                0137-1592
                September 13 2021
                September 13 2021
                : 51
                : 3
                : 321-325
                Article
                10.3897/aiep.51.67651
                © 2021

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