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      A Dietary Restriction Influences the Progression But Not the Initiation of MSG-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

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          Most cited references 55

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          Developmental programming of obesity in mammals.

           L. Poston,  D. Taylor (2007)
          Converging lines of evidence from epidemiological studies and animal models now indicate that the origins of obesity and related metabolic disorders lie not only in the interaction between genes and traditional adult risk factors, such as unbalanced diet and physical inactivity, but also in the interplay between genes and the embryonic, fetal and early postnatal environment. Whilst studies in man initially focused on the relationship between low birth weight and risk of adult obesity and metabolic syndrome, evidence is also growing to suggest that increased birth weight and/or adiposity at birth can also lead to increased risk for childhood and adult obesity. Hence, there appears to be increased risk of obesity at both ends of the birth weight spectrum. Animal models, including both under- and overnutrition in pregnancy and lactation lend increasing support to the developmental origins of obesity. This review focuses upon the influence of the maternal nutritional and hormonal environment in pregnancy in permanently programming appetite and energy expenditure and the hormonal, neuronal and autocrine mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of energy balance in the offspring. We discuss the potential maternal programming 'vectors' and the molecular mechanisms that may lead to persistent pathophysiological changes resulting in subsequent disease. The perinatal environment, which appears to programme subsequent obesity, provides a potential therapeutic target, and work in this field will readily translate into improved interventional strategies to stem the growing epidemic of obesity, a disease which, once manifest, has proven particularly resistant to treatment.
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            Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis: the present and the future.

             S Petta,  C Muratore,  A Craxi (2009)
            Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the clinical hepatic expression of metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is around 20-30%, and with a rapid increase in the metabolic risk factors in the general population, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. A fraction (20-30%) of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients develop a potentially progressive hepatic disorder, namely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, leading to end-stage liver disease. The pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not entirely understood, and even if insulin resistance is a major pathogenetic key, many other factors are implicated in both liver fat accumulation and disease progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this review we aim to examine the literature, principally concerning human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, and to identify the newest, most promising clinical and basic research data.
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              Diagnostic value of HSP70, glypican 3, and glutamine synthetase in hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis.

              Hepatocellular nodules in cirrhosis include regenerative (large regenerative, LRN) and dysplastic (low and high grade, LGDN and HGDN) nodules, early and grade 1 HCC (eHCC-G1), and overt HCC. The differential diagnosis may be particularly difficult when lesions such as HGDN and eHCC-G1 are involved. We investigated the diagnostic yield of a panel of 3 putative markers of hepatocellular malignancy such as HSP70, glypican 3 (GPC3), and glutamine synthetase (GS). We selected 52 surgically removed nonmalignant nodules (15 LRNs, 15 LGDNs, 22 HGDNs) and 53 HCCs (10 early, 22 grade 1, and 21 grade 2-3) and immunostained them for HSP70, GPC3, and GS. The sensitivity and specificity of the individual markers for the detection of eHCC-G1 were 59% and 86% for GS, 69% and 91% for GPC3, and 78% and 95% for HSP70. We identified 2 main phenotypes: (1) all negative, seen in 100% LRN and LGDN, 73% HGDN and 3% eHCC-G1; (2) all positive, a feature detected in less than half the eHCC-G1. Using a 3-marker panel, when at least 2 of them, regardless which, were positive, the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of eHCC-G1 were respectively 72% and 100%; the most sensitive combination was HSP70+/GPC3+ (59%) when a 2-marker panel was used. The adopted panel of 3 markers is very helpful in distinguishing eHCC-G1 from dysplastic nodules arising in cirrhosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medicinal Food
                Journal of Medicinal Food
                Mary Ann Liebert Inc
                1096-620X
                1557-7600
                March 2014
                March 2014
                : 17
                : 3
                : 374-383
                Article
                10.1089/jmf.2012.0029
                © 2014

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