Background and Aims: Visceral adiposity index (VAI), calculated with body mass index, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides and waist circumference, has been proposed as a marker of visceral fat accumulation and dysfunction in adipose tissue. Methods: The impact of VAI on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a historical cohort study of 15,159 (8,260 men and 6,899 women) participants was investigated. CKD was defined when estimated glomerular filtration rate was <60 mL/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> or proteinuria (positive: ≥1+). We divided the participants into 2 groups according to sex and into quartiles according to VAI (Q1–4). We performed Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, smoking status, exercise, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c, uric acid, and creatinine. Results: During the median 3.3-year follow-up for men and 3.2-year follow-up for women, 1,078 participants (629 men and 449 women) developed CKD. The 4,000 days cumulative incidence rate of CKD for men and women were 3.7 and 3.9% in Q1, 5.2 and 5.9% in Q2, 6.5 and 7.0% in Q3, and 8.4 and 9.3% in Q4 respectively. Compared to Q1, the hazard ratios of incident CKD in Q2, Q3 and Q4 for men and women were 1.23 (95% CI 0.91–1.66, p = 0.184) and 1.30 (0.87–1.96, p = 0.203), 1.42 (1.06–1.90, p = 0.018) and 1.38 (0.94–2.05, p = 0.105), and 1.51 (1.12–2.02, p = 0.006) and 1.65 (1.12–2.46, p = 0.013) respectively. Additionally, the area under the curve of VAI for incidence of CKD was superior to that of VAI in men (0.595 vs. 0.552, p < 0.001) and equal to in women (0.597 vs. 0.591, p = 0.708). Conclusions: The VAI can be a predictor of incident CKD.