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      Examining the Lead Exposure and its Effects among U.S Children

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      ScienceOpen Preprints


      Lead Exposure, U.S Children, Lead toxicity, Disease Surveillance , Exposure Monitoring

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          Muse came from Somalia, where he was trained as a medical doctor and completed a Bachelor of Science in Medicine and Surgery in Somalia. Muse then graduated from Minnesota State University Mankato, Minnesota, U.S, with a Bachelor of Science in Biomedicine. Muse has now completed a Master of Public Health (MPH) at the Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, Minnesota, U.S, and he is moving forward with Ph.D. in infectious diseases. His research focuses on infectious diseases, health disparities, and health equity among racial minorities.


          According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (2019), lead is an element that is naturally found on the surface of the earth. Lead is also harmful to humans, especially young children. Similarly, the CDC (2021) has reported that lead naturally occurs in the environment such as soil, air, and water. However, it is also commonly found in older homes. This is especially true with lower socioeconomic communities’ housing. Lead exposure commonly comes from old lead pipes, faucets, and plumbing fixtures. In addition to water contamination, nearly 23 million houses have lead-based paint hazards in the United States (Egan et al., 2021). Egan and his colleagues also found that there are more than 3.6 million households with children younger than six years old living in these lead-filled homes. More than 6 million housing units still have lead water pipes in the United States (Dignam et al., 2019).

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          ScienceOpen Preprints
          23 August 2021
          [1 ] Saint Mary's University of Minnesota School of Public Health
          Author notes

          This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

          Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

          Earth & Environmental sciences, Medicine, Social & Behavioral Sciences

          U.S Children, Lead Exposure, Disease Surveillance , Lead toxicity, Exposure Monitoring


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