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      Four-dimensional imaging of murine subpleural alveoli using high-speed optical coherence tomography

      , , , ,
      Journal of Biophotonics
      Wiley

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          Multi-megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second.

          We present ultra high speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) with multi-megahertz line rates and investigate the achievable image quality. The presented system is a swept source OCT setup using a Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser. Three different FDML-based swept laser sources with sweep rates of 1, 2.6 and 5.2MHz are compared. Imaging with 4 spots in parallel quadruples the effective speed, enabling depth scan rates as high as 20.8 million lines per second. Each setup provides at least 98dB sensitivity and approximately 10microm resolution in tissue. High quality 2D and 3D imaging of biological samples is demonstrated at full scan speed. A discussion about how to best specify OCT imaging speed is included. The connection between voxel rate, line rate, frame rate and hardware performance of the OCT setup such as sample rate, analog bandwidth, coherence length, acquisition dead-time and scanner duty cycle is provided. Finally, suitable averaging protocols to further increase image quality are discussed.
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            Mechanical ventilation of mice

            Due to growing interest in murine functional genomics research, there is an increasing need for physiological stable in vivo murine models. Of special importance is support and control of ventilation by artificial respiration, which is difficult to execute as a consequence of the small size of the animal and the technically demanding breathing pattern. In addition, numerous genetically altered mice show depressed spontaneous ventilation or impaired respiratory responses. After an introduction in murine respiratory physiology we describe options for ventilatory support, its monitoring and the potential side effects. This review will provide an overview on current possibilities in the field of airway support in mouse research.
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              Virtual four-dimensional imaging of lung parenchyma by optical coherence tomography in mice.

              In this feasibility study, we present a method for virtual 4-D imaging of healthy and injured subpleural lung tissue in the ventilated mouse. We use triggered swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) with an A-scan frequency of 20 kHz to image murine subpleural alveoli during the inspiratory phase. The data acquisition is gated to the ventilation pressure to take single B-scans in each respiration cycle for different pressure levels. The acquired B-scans are combined off-line into one volume scan for each pressure level. The air fraction in healthy lungs and injured lungs is measured using 2-D OCT en-face images. Upon lung inspiration from 2 to 12 cm H(2)O ventilation pressure, the air fraction increases in healthy lungs by up to 11% and in injured lungs by 8%. This expansion correlates well with results of previous studies, reporting increased alveolar area with increased ventilation pressures. We demonstrate that OCT is a useful tool to investigate alveolar dynamics in spatial dimensions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biophotonics
                J. Biophoton.
                Wiley
                1864063X
                February 2013
                February 2013
                April 13 2012
                : 6
                : 2
                : 148-152
                Article
                10.1002/jbio.201200027
                509b2811-01e0-4f72-902e-17ceb086e375
                © 2012

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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