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Interventions to Improve Motivation and Retention of Community Health Workers Delivering Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM): Stakeholder Perceptions and Priorities

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      Abstract

      Despite resurgence in the use of community health workers (CHWs) in the delivery of community case management of childhood illnesses, a paucity of evidence for effective strategies to address key constraints of worker motivation and retention endures. This work reports the results of semi-structured interviews with 15 international stakeholders, selected because of their experiences in CHW program implementation, to elicit their views on strategies that could increase CHW motivation and retention. Data were collected to identify potential interventions that could be tested through a randomized control trial. Suggested interventions were organized into thematic areas; cross-cutting approaches, recruitment, training, supervision, incentives, community involvement and ownership, information and data management, and mHealth. The priority interventions of stakeholders correspond to key areas of the work motivation and CHW literature. Combined, they potentially provide useful insight for programmers engaging in further enquiry into the most locally relevant, acceptable, and evidence-based interventions.

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      Most cited references 28

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      Qualitative research in health care. Analysing qualitative data.

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        How many child deaths can we prevent this year?

        This is the second of five papers in the child survival series. The first focused on continuing high rates of child mortality (over 10 million each year) from preventable causes: diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV/AIDS, the underlying cause of undernutrition, and a small group of causes leading to neonatal deaths. We review child survival interventions feasible for delivery at high coverage in low-income settings, and classify these as level 1 (sufficient evidence of effect), level 2 (limited evidence), or level 3 (inadequate evidence). Our results show that at least one level-1 intervention is available for preventing or treating each main cause of death among children younger than 5 years, apart from birth asphyxia, for which a level-2 intervention is available. There is also limited evidence for several other interventions. However, global coverage for most interventions is below 50%. If level 1 or 2 interventions were universally available, 63% of child deaths could be prevented. These findings show that the interventions needed to achieve the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are available, but that they are not being delivered to the mothers and children who need them.
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          Human resources for health: overcoming the crisis.

          In this analysis of the global workforce, the Joint Learning Initiative-a consortium of more than 100 health leaders-proposes that mobilisation and strengthening of human resources for health, neglected yet critical, is central to combating health crises in some of the world's poorest countries and for building sustainable health systems in all countries. Nearly all countries are challenged by worker shortage, skill mix imbalance, maldistribution, negative work environment, and weak knowledge base. Especially in the poorest countries, the workforce is under assault by HIV/AIDS, out-migration, and inadequate investment. Effective country strategies should be backed by international reinforcement. Ultimately, the crisis in human resources is a shared problem requiring shared responsibility for cooperative action. Alliances for action are recommended to strengthen the performance of all existing actors while expanding space and energy for fresh actors.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Centre for International Health and Development, University College London, United Kingdom; Malaria Consortium Africa, Kampala, Uganda; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Malaria Consortium, London, United Kingdom
            Author notes
            *Address correspondence to Daniel L. Strachan, Centre for International Health and Development (CIHD), Third Floor, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK WC1N 1EH. E-mail: d.strachan@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
            Journal
            Am J Trop Med Hyg
            Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg
            tpmd
            The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
            The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
            0002-9637
            1476-1645
            07 November 2012
            07 November 2012
            : 87
            : 5 Suppl
            : 111-119
            23136286
            3748511
            10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0030
            ©The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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