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Relation of iron and red meat intake to blood pressure: cross sectional epidemiological study

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      Abstract

      Objective To investigate associations of dietary iron (total, haem, and non-haem), supplemental iron, and red meat with blood pressure.Design Cross sectional epidemiological study.Setting 17 population samples from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States participating in the international collaborative study on macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP).Participants 4680 adults aged 40-59.Main outcome measure Average of eight blood pressure readings.Results In multiple linear regression analyses dietary total iron and non-haem iron were consistently inversely associated with blood pressure. With adjustment for potential non-dietary and dietary confounders, dietary total iron intake higher by 4.20 mg/4.2 MJ (2 SD) was associated with −1.39 mm Hg (P<0.01) lower systolic blood pressure. Dietary non-haem iron intake higher by 4.13 mg/4.2 MJ (2 SD) was associated with −1.45 mm Hg (P<0.001) lower systolic blood pressure. Differences were smaller for diastolic blood pressure. In most models haem iron intake from food was positively, non-significantly associated with blood pressure. Iron intake from combined diet and supplements yielded smaller associations than dietary iron alone. Red meat intake was directly associated with blood pressure; 102.6 g/24 h (2 SD) higher intake was associated with 1.25 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure. Associations between red meat and blood pressure persisted after adjustment for multiple confounders.Conclusion Non-haem iron has a possible role in the prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels. An unfavourable effect of red meat on blood pressure was observed. These results need confirmation including in prospective studies, clinical trials, and from experimental evidence on possible mechanisms.

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      Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies.

      The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies. Information was obtained on each of one million adults with no previous vascular disease recorded at baseline in 61 prospective observational studies of blood pressure and mortality. During 12.7 million person-years at risk, there were about 56000 vascular deaths (12000 stroke, 34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 10000 other vascular) and 66000 other deaths at ages 40-89 years. Meta-analyses, involving "time-dependent" correction for regression dilution, related mortality during each decade of age at death to the estimated usual blood pressure at the start of that decade. Within each decade of age at death, the proportional difference in the risk of vascular death associated with a given absolute difference in usual blood pressure is about the same down to at least 115 mm Hg usual systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 75 mm Hg usual diastolic blood pressure (DBP), below which there is little evidence. At ages 40-69 years, each difference of 20 mm Hg usual SBP (or, approximately equivalently, 10 mm Hg usual DBP) is associated with more than a twofold difference in the stroke death rate, and with twofold differences in the death rates from IHD and from other vascular causes. All of these proportional differences in vascular mortality are about half as extreme at ages 80-89 years as at ages 40-49 years, but the annual absolute differences in risk are greater in old age. The age-specific associations are similar for men and women, and for cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia. For predicting vascular mortality from a single blood pressure measurement, the average of SBP and DBP is slightly more informative than either alone, and pulse pressure is much less informative. Throughout middle and old age, usual blood pressure is strongly and directly related to vascular (and overall) mortality, without any evidence of a threshold down to at least 115/75 mm Hg.
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        Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group.

        The effect of dietary composition on blood pressure is a subject of public health importance. We studied the effect of different levels of dietary sodium, in conjunction with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, which is rich in vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products, in persons with and in those without hypertension. A total of 412 participants were randomly assigned to eat either a control diet typical of intake in the United States or the DASH diet. Within the assigned diet, participants ate foods with high, intermediate, and low levels of sodium for 30 consecutive days each, in random order. Reducing the sodium intake from the high to the intermediate level reduced the systolic blood pressure by 2.1 mm Hg (P<0.001) during the control diet and by 1.3 mm Hg (P=0.03) during the DASH diet. Reducing the sodium intake from the intermediate to the low level caused additional reductions of 4.6 mm Hg during the control diet (P<0.001) and 1.7 mm Hg during the DASH diet (P<0.01). The effects of sodium were observed in participants with and in those without hypertension, blacks and those of other races, and women and men. The DASH diet was associated with a significantly lower systolic blood pressure at each sodium level; and the difference was greater with high sodium levels than with low ones. As compared with the control diet with a high sodium level, the DASH diet with a low sodium level led to a mean systolic blood pressure that was 7.1 mm Hg lower in participants without hypertension, and 11.5 mm Hg lower in participants with hypertension. The reduction of sodium intake to levels below the current recommendation of 100 mmol per day and the DASH diet both lower blood pressure substantially, with greater effects in combination than singly. Long-term health benefits will depend on the ability of people to make long-lasting dietary changes and the increased availability of lower-sodium foods.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary’s Campus, London W2 1PG
            [2 ]Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
            [3 ]Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, Japan
            [4 ]Cardiovascular Institute, Fu Wai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: I Tzoulaki I.Tzoulaki@ 123456imperial.ac.uk
            Contributors
            Role: lecturer in epidemiology
            Role: research assistant
            Role: senior research officer
            Role: professor of preventive medicine
            Role: professor of medicine
            Role: professor of epidemiology
            Role: professor emeritus
            Role: professor
            Journal
            BMJ
            bmj
            BMJ : British Medical Journal
            BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
            0959-8138
            1468-5833
            2008
            : 337
            2658466
            tzoi544841
            10.1136/bmj.a258
            18632704
            © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd 2008
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            Research

            Medicine

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