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      Phosphate Elimination in Modalities of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Peritoneal dialysis, Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphate elimination, Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Hyperphosphatemia is highly prevalent in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Elimination of inorganic phosphate by dialysis is a cornerstone of the management of hyperphosphatemia. Phosphate clearance during HD is affected by various factors of dialysis prescription, such as blood and dialysate flow rate, dialyzer membrane surface area and ultrafiltration volume. Phosphate mass removal can be improved by hemodiafiltration, increased dialysis frequencies and extended treatment times. Short daily or extended daily or 3 times weekly nocturnal HD allow higher phosphate mass removal and potentially complete discontinuation of phosphate binder medication. In PD, phosphate mass removal appears to be correlated with peritoneal creatinine but not urea clearance. In hyperphosphatemic PD patients, the decision on the optimal PD modality should be based on peritoneal creatinine and ideally also on peritoneal phosphate transport characteristics.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Effect of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis vs conventional hemodialysis on left ventricular mass and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial.

          Morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis patients remain excessive. Alterations in the delivery of dialysis may lead to improved patient outcomes. To compare the effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis vs conventional hemodialysis on change in left ventricular mass and health-related quality of life over 6 months. A 2-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 Canadian university centers between August 2004 and December 2006. A total of 52 patients undergoing hemodialysis were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive nocturnal hemodialysis 6 times weekly or conventional hemodialysis 3 times weekly. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular mass, as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The secondary outcomes were patient-reported quality of life, blood pressure, mineral metabolism, and use of medications. Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis significantly improved the primary outcome (mean left ventricular mass difference between groups, 15.3 g, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 29.6 g; P = .04). Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis did not significantly improve quality of life (difference of change in EuroQol 5-D index from baseline, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.17; P = .43). However, frequent nocturnal hemodialysis was associated with clinically and statistically significant improvements in selected kidney-specific domains of quality of life (P = .01 for effects of kidney disease and P = .02 for burden of kidney disease). Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis was also associated with improvements in systolic blood pressure (P = .01 after adjustment) and mineral metabolism, including a reduction in or discontinuation of antihypertensive medications (16/26 patients in the nocturnal hemodialysis group vs 3/25 patients in the conventional hemodialysis group; P < .001) and oral phosphate binders (19/26 patients in the nocturnal hemodialysis group vs 3/25 patients in the conventional dialysis group; P < .001). No benefit in anemia management was seen with nocturnal hemodialysis. This preliminary study revealed that, compared with conventional hemodialysis (3 times weekly), frequent nocturnal hemodialysis improved left ventricular mass, reduced the need for blood pressure medications, improved some measures of mineral metabolism, and improved selected measures of quality of life. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN25858715.
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            Changes in serum calcium, phosphate, and PTH and the risk of death in incident dialysis patients: a longitudinal study.

            Elevated bone mineral parameters have been associated with mortality in dialysis patients. There are conflicting data about calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and mortality and few data about changes in bone mineral parameters over time. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1007 incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients. We examined longitudinal changes in bone mineral parameters and whether their associations with mortality were independent of time on dialysis, inflammation, and comorbidity. Serum calcium, phosphate, and calcium-phosphate product (CaP) increased in these patients between baseline and 6 months (P<0.001) and then remained stable. Serum PTH decreased over the first year (P<0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for inflammation, comorbidity, and other confounders, the highest quartile of phosphate was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57 (1.07-2.30) using both baseline and time-dependent values. The highest quartiles of calcium, CaP, and PTH were associated with mortality in time-dependent models but not in those using baseline values. The lowest quartile of PTH was associated with an HR of 0.65 (0.44-0.98) in the time-dependent model with 6-month lag analysis. We conclude that high levels of phosphate both at baseline and over follow-up are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients. High levels of calcium, CaP, and PTH are associated with mortality immediately preceding an event. Promising new interventions need to be rigorously tested in clinical trials for their ability to achieve normalization of bone mineral parameters and reduce deaths of dialysis patients.
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              Effects of short daily versus conventional hemodialysis on left ventricular hypertrophy and inflammatory markers: a prospective, controlled study.

              Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and inflammation independently increase risk for death in people who receive hemodialysis. A nonrandomized, controlled trial was conducted of the effect of short daily (6 sessions/wk of 3 h each) or conventional (three sessions/wk of 4 h each) hemodialysis on LVH and inflammatory factors. A total of 26 short daily hemodialysis and 51 matched conventional hemodialysis patients were enrolled, and baseline and 12-mo measures of echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum calcium and phosphorus, and erythropoietin resistance index were collected. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups except that hemoglobin and serum calcium were lower and serum phosphorus was higher in the short daily hemodialysis group. At 12-mo follow-up, short daily hemodialysis patients experienced a 30% decrease in LVMI (154 +/- 33 to 108 +/- 25; P < 0.0001). After adjustment for potential confounders, short daily hemodialysis (beta = -41.63, P = 0.03) and percentage decrease in serum phosphorus (beta = -0.12, P = 0.04) predicted a 12-mo decrease in LVMI. Among short daily hemodialysis patients, there were significant reductions in median CRP levels [1.22 interquartile range (IQR) (0.37 to 3.70) to 0.05 IQR (0.05 to 1.17); P < 0.01] and erythropoietin resistance index [19.5 IQR (8.6 to 37.6) to 10.5 IQR (5.5 to 14.6); P < 0.001]. There were no significant changes in LVMI, CRP, or erythropoietin resistance index in the conventional hemodialysis group. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with improved fluid and phosphorus management and a reduction in LVH and inflammatory factors compared with conventional hemodialysis. Future trials are needed to determine whether short daily hemodialysis can reduce morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-9340-3
                978-3-8055-9341-0
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2010
                January 2010
                08 January 2010
                : 29
                : 2
                : 137-144
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine – Nephrology, Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany
                Article
                245640 Blood Purif 2010;29:137–144
                10.1159/000245640
                20093819
                © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 8
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