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      Molecular survey of coccidian infections of the side-blotched lizard Uta stansburiana on San Benito Oeste Island, Mexico Translated title: Étude moléculaire des infections à coccidies du lézard Uta stansburiana sur l’île de San Benito Oeste, Mexique

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          Blood parasites are found in many vertebrates, but the research on blood parasites of lizards is still at its onset. We analyzed blood samples from side-blotched lizards Uta stansburiana from San Benito Oeste Island, Mexico, to test for the presence of hemoparasites. We found a high prevalence (23 out of 27 samples) of a blood parasite of the genus Lankesterella (Coccidia, Eimeriorina, Lankesterellidae) according to phylogenetic analyses of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Similar parasites (97–99% similarity) have recently been described for Uta stansburiana from California. The parasite 18S rRNA gene showed high variability, both within San Benito and compared to California. The next closest matches of the parasite DNA with 97–98% similarity included a range of different genera ( Lankesterella, Schellackia, Eimeria, Isospora and Caryospora). A high uncertainty in the deeper branches of the phylogenetic trees, and many missing links in genetic network analysis, were in line with previous suggestions that the coccidians are an understudied group with large knowledge gaps in terms of their diversity and taxonomy. Further studies are needed to resolve the evolutionary relationships within the Eimeriorina.

          Translated abstract

          On trouve des parasites sanguins chez de nombreux vertébrés, mais la recherche sur les parasites sanguins des lézards est encore à ses débuts. Nous avons analysé des échantillons de sang de lézards, Uta stansburiana, de l’île de San Benito Oeste, au Mexique, pour tester la présence d’hémoparasites. Nous avons trouvé une prévalence élevée (23 échantillons sur 27) d’un parasite sanguin du genre Lankesterella (Coccidia, Eimeriorina, Lankesterellidae) selon les analyses phylogénétiques du gène de l’ARNr 18S du parasite. Des parasites similaires (97–99 % de similarité) ont été récemment décrits chez Uta stansburiana de Californie. Le gène de l’ARNr 18S du parasite présentait une variabilité élevée, tant à San Benito qu’en Californie. Les appariements les plus proches de l’ADN du parasite avec une similitude de 97–98 % comprenaient une gamme de genres différents ( Lankesterella, Schellackia, Eimeria, Isospora et Caryospora). Une forte incertitude dans les branches les plus profondes des arbres phylogénétiques, et de nombreux chaînons manquants dans l’analyse des réseaux génétiques étaient en accord avec les suggestions précédentes selon lesquelles les coccidiens sont un groupe peu étudié avec de grandes lacunes en termes de connaissance de leur diversité et leur taxonomie. D’autres études sont nécessaires pour résoudre les relations évolutives au sein des Eimeriorina.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Windows 95/98/NT

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            This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic studies. We propose a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics. The vocabulary of the taxonomy is updated, particularly to clarify the naming of groups that have been repositioned. We recognize six clusters of eukaryotes that may represent the basic groupings similar to traditional "kingdoms." The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles.
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              The conditioned reconstructed process.

              We investigate a neutral model for speciation and extinction, the constant rate birth-death process. The process is conditioned to have n extant species today, we look at the tree distribution of the reconstructed trees--i.e. the trees without the extinct species. Whereas the tree shape distribution is well-known and actually the same as under the pure birth process, no analytic results for the speciation times were known. We provide the distribution for the speciation times and calculate the expectations analytically. This characterizes the reconstructed trees completely. We will show how the results can be used to date phylogenies.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                15 August 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                [1 ] Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32 35392 Giessen Germany
                [2 ] Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Justus Liebig University Giessen Frankfurter Str. 112 35392 Giessen Germany
                [3 ] Grupo de Ecología y Conservación de Islas, A.C. Moctezuma 836, Zona Centro 22800 Ensenada Baja California Mexico
                Author notes
                parasite170156 10.1051/parasite/2018043
                © P. Quillfeldt et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 9
                Research Article


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