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      Dynamics of symbiotic bacterial community in whole life stage of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)


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          Bacteria play critical roles in the reproduction, metabolism, physiology, and detoxification of their insect hosts. The ladybird beetle ( Harmonia axyridis) harbors a myriad of endosymbiotic microbes. However, to date, little is known about how the microbial composition of H. axyridis varies throughout its life cycle.


          In this study, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR were employed to investigate the diversity and dynamics of bacterial symbionts across the egg, larval, pupae, and adults stages of H. axyridis.


          Higher bacterial community richness and diversity were observed in eggs, followed by those in adults and pupae. The community richness index differed significantly between second-instar larvae and other developmental stages. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla. Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Glutamicibacter, and Acinetobacter were the dominant bacteria genera; however, their relative abundances fluctuated across host developmental stages. Interestingly, the larval stage harbored high proportions of Firmicutes, whereas the adult microbial community largely consisted of Proteobacteria.


          This study is the first to determine the symbiotic bacterial composition across key life stages of H. axyridis. These outcomes can foster the development of environmental risk assessments and novel biological control strategies.

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          Most cited references56

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          Is Open Access

          The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools

          SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.
            • Record: found
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            QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.

              • Record: found
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              FLASH: fast length adjustment of short reads to improve genome assemblies.

              Next-generation sequencing technologies generate very large numbers of short reads. Even with very deep genome coverage, short read lengths cause problems in de novo assemblies. The use of paired-end libraries with a fragment size shorter than twice the read length provides an opportunity to generate much longer reads by overlapping and merging read pairs before assembling a genome. We present FLASH, a fast computational tool to extend the length of short reads by overlapping paired-end reads from fragment libraries that are sufficiently short. We tested the correctness of the tool on one million simulated read pairs, and we then applied it as a pre-processor for genome assemblies of Illumina reads from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and human chromosome 14. FLASH correctly extended and merged reads >99% of the time on simulated reads with an error rate of <1%. With adequately set parameters, FLASH correctly merged reads over 90% of the time even when the reads contained up to 5% errors. When FLASH was used to extend reads prior to assembly, the resulting assemblies had substantially greater N50 lengths for both contigs and scaffolds. The FLASH system is implemented in C and is freely available as open-source code at http://www.cbcb.umd.edu/software/flash. t.magoc@gmail.com.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                01 December 2022
                : 13
                : 1050329
                [1] 1State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Anyang, China
                [2] 2Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou, China
                [3] 3Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, Huazhong Agricultural University , Wuhan, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Simon Luke Elliot, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil

                Reviewed by: Geetanjali Mishra, University of Lucknow, India; Pina Brinker, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Germany

                *Correspondence: Junyu Luo, luojunyu1818@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Microbial Symbioses, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2022 Du, Xue, Hu, Zhu, Wang, Zhang, Li, Ji, Niu, Luo, Cui and Gao.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 21 September 2022
                : 11 November 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 56, Pages: 11, Words: 6449
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                harmonia axyridis,symbiotic bacteria,high-throughput sequencing,quantitative pcr,life stages


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