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      First detection and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet fancy rats ( Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus) in China Translated title: Première détection et génotypage d’ Enterocytozoon bieneusi chez des rats ( Rattus norvegicus) et des cobayes ( Cavia porcellus) de compagnie en Chine

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      EDP Sciences

      Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Pet rats, Pet guinea pigs, Genotype, Zoonotic, China

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          Enterocytozoon bieneusi, an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite, can infect humans and a wide variety of animals worldwide. However, information on the prevalence and molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in pet rats and guinea pigs is lacking. In this study, 325 fecal samples were collected from 152 pet fancy rats and 173 pet guinea pigs purchased from pet shops in Henan and Shandong provinces. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 11.2% (17/152) in pet fancy rats and 20.2% (35/173) in pet guinea pigs. Genotypes D ( n = 12), Peru11 ( n = 3), S7 ( n = 1) and SCC-2 ( n = 1) were identified in pet fancy rats, and genotype S7 ( n = 30) and a novel genotype PGP ( n = 5) were identified in pet guinea pigs. The ITS sequence and its phylogenetic analysis showed that the novel genotype PGP was distinctly different; it exhibited less than 50% similarity to the reference sequences, and did not cluster with any of the known E. bieneusi genotype groups, forming a unique branch between groups 6 and 7. These data suggest that this is a new E. bieneusi genotype group. This is the first report of E. bieneusi infection in pet fancy rats and pet guinea pigs worldwide. The identification of zoonotic genotypes D, Peru11, and S7 suggests that pet fancy rats and guinea pigs can be potential sources of human microsporidiosis.

          Translated abstract

          Enterocytozoon bieneusi, un parasite microsporidien intracellulaire obligatoire, peut infecter les humains et une grande variété d’animaux dans le monde. Cependant, les informations sur la prévalence et la caractérisation moléculaire d’ E. bieneusi chez les rats et les cobayes de compagnie manquaient. Dans cette étude, 325 échantillons de matières fécales ont été prélevés de 152 rats et 173 cobayes achetés dans des animaleries dans les provinces du Henan et du Shandong. La prévalence d’ E. bieneusi était de 11,2 % (17/152) chez les rats et de 20,2 % (35/173) chez les cobayes. Les génotypes D ( n = 12), Peru11 ( n = 3), S7 ( n = 1) et SCC-2 ( n = 1) ont été identifiés chez des rats de compagnie, et le génotype S7 ( n = 30) et un nouveau génotype PGP ( n = 5) ont été identifiés chez des cobayes de compagnie. La séquence d’ITS et son analyse phylogénétique ont montré que le nouveau génotype PGP était nettement différent ; la séquence présentait moins de 50 % de similitude avec les séquences de référence et ne se regroupait avec aucun des groupes de génotypes connus d’ E. bieneusi, formant une branche unique entre les groupes 6 et 7 ; ces données suggèrent qu’il s’agit d’un nouveau groupe de génotype d’ E. bieneusi. Ceci est le premier signalement d’infection par E. bieneusi chez des rats et des cobayes de compagnie dans le monde. L’identification des génotypes zoonotiques D, Peru11 et S7 suggère que les rats et les cobayes de compagnie peuvent être des sources potentielles de microsporidiose humaine.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals.

          Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect all major animal groups. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified Microsporidia in humans and has also been reported worldwide in animals with importance in veterinary medicine (e.g., cats, dogs, horses, cattle and pigs). The identification of E. bieneusi in animals has raised the question of the importance of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen, and the implications of the infection with this pathogen in infected animals. Considerable genetic diversity within E. bieneusi has been found with over 90 genotypes identified based on the ITS nucleotide sequence of E. bieneusi spores recovered from the feces of infected humans and animals. Both host-adapted E. bieneusi genotypes with narrow host ranges and potentially zoonotic genotypes with wide host specificity have been identified. The information presented in this review should be useful in understanding the taxonomy, epidemiology, zoonotic potential, and importance in public health of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.
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            Microsporidiosis: current status.

            Microsporidiosis is an emerging and opportunistic infection associated with a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. This review highlights the research on microsporidiosis in humans during the previous 2 years. The reduced and compact microsporidian genome has generated much interest for better understanding the evolution of these parasites, and comparative molecular phylogenetic studies continue to support a relationship between the microsporidia and fungi. Through increased awareness and improved diagnostics, microsporidiosis has been identified in a broader range of human populations that, in addition to persons with HIV infection, includes travelers, children, organ transplant recipients, and the elderly. Effective commercial therapies for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most common microsporidian species identified in humans, are still lacking, making the need to develop tissue culture and small animal models increasingly urgent. Environmental transport modeling and disinfection strategies are being addressed for improving water safety. Questions still exist about whether microsporidia infections remain persistent in asymptomatic immune-competent individuals, reactivate during conditions of immune compromise, or may be transmitted to others at risk, such as during pregnancy or through organ donation. Reliable serological diagnostic methods are needed to supplement polymerase chain reaction or histochemistry when spore shedding may be sporadic.
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              Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy.

              Molecular diagnostic tools have been used increasingly in the characterization of the transmission of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis in developing countries. However, few studies have examined the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. In the present study, 683 HIV-positive patients in the National Free Antiretroviral Therapy Program in China and 683 matched HIV-negative controls were enrolled. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes were detected and differentiated by PCR and DNA sequencing. The infection rates were 1.5% and 0.15% for Cryptosporidium and 5.7% and 4.2% for E. bieneusi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively. The majority (8/11) of Cryptosporidium cases were infections by zoonotic species, including Cryptosporidium meleagridis (5), Cryptosporidium parvum (2), and Cryptosporidium suis (1). Prevalent E. bieneusi genotypes detected, including EbpC (39), D (12), and type IV (7), were also potentially zoonotic. The common occurrence of EbpC was a feature of E. bieneusi transmission not seen in other areas. Contact with animals was a risk factor for both cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis. The results suggest that zoonotic transmission was significant in the epidemiology of both diseases in rural AIDS patients in China.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                06 April 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology Luoyang 471003 China
                Author notes

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding author: qwf2012@ 123456yeah.net
                parasite200016 10.1051/parasite/2020019
                © J. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 6
                Research Article


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