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      Obstructive Sleep Apnea as a Risk Marker in Coronary Artery Disease


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          Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a range of cardiovascular sequelae and increased cardiovascular mortality. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of OSA in patients with symptomatic angina and angiographically verified coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, we analyzed the association of OSA and other coronary risk factors with CAD and myocardial infarction. Methods: Overnight non-laboratory-monitoring-system recordings for detection of OSA was performed in 223 male patients with angiographically verified CAD and in 66 male patients with exclusion of CAD. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess associations between risk factors and CAD and myocardial infarction. Results: CAD patients were found to have OSA in 30.5%, whereas OSA was found in control subjects in 19.7%. The mean apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in CAD patients (9.9 ± 11.8) than in control subjects (6.7 ± 7.3). Body-mass-index (BMI) was significantly higher in patients with CAD and OSA than in patients with CAD without OSA (28.1 vs. 26.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup>; p < 0.001). No significant difference was found with regard to other risk factors and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between both groups. Hyperlipidemia (OR 2.3; CI 1.3–3.9; p < 0.005) and OSA defined as AHI ≥20 (OR 2.0; CI 1.0–3.8, p < 0.05) were independently associated with myocardial infarction. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of OSA among patients with angiographically proven CAD. OSA of moderate severity (AHI ≥20) is independently associated with myocardial infarction. Thus, in the care of patients with CAD, particular vigilance for OSA is important.

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          Sleep apnoea and nocturnal angina

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            The relationship between systemic hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea: facts and theory.

            This article provides an in-depth overview of the relationship between primary hypertension and adult obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The background data and research are taken from the English-language literature through 1993. Primary hypertension is a common cause of major medical illnesses, including stroke, heart disease, and renal failure, in middle-aged males. Its prevalence in the United States is around 20%, with the rate of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients being about 3% per year. Sleep apnea syndrome is common in the same population. It is estimated that up to 2% of women and 4% of men in the working population meet criteria for sleep apnea syndrome. The prevalence may be much higher in older, non-working men. Many of the factors predisposing to hypertension in middle age, such as obesity and the male sex, are also associated with sleep apnea. Recent publications describe a 30% prevalence of occult sleep apnea among middle-aged males with so called "primary hypertension." Is this association fortuitous, related to a high prevalence of both diseases in the same population, or is it caused by a factor common to both diseases, such as obesity? Should the diagnosis of apnea be actively sought with sleep studies in hypertensive populations? If a diagnosis of "asymptomatic" sleep apnea is made in a hypertensive person, should the apnea be treated? Current research data provide only partial answers to these and other questions regarding the association of apnea and hypertension. Logic dictates that clinically symptomatic patients in hypertensive clinics should receive appropriate evaluation for apnea, but broad populations of hypertensive individuals should not be referred for sleep studies.
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              Surrogate measures in clinical trials


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                February 2000
                07 March 2000
                : 92
                : 2
                : 79-84
                aDepartment of Cardiology and Pulmonary Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
                6952 Cardiology 1999;92:79–84
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 6
                General Cardiology


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