+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Thermoplastic Foams from Zein and Gelatin


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          The aim of this study was to characterize the foaming of natural proteins as thermoplastic polymers. In particular, two proteins, one of vegetal origin, zein, and one of animal origin, gelatin, were processed to achieve thermoplastic polymers, and subsequently foamed by a gas foaming batch process. The effects of suitable plasticizing additives and melt-mixing process on the thermal and mechanical properties of the thermoplasticized proteins were evaluated to assess the thermoplastic characteristics of these materials. Furthermore, selected protein/plasticizers systems were foamed with mixtures of CO 2 and N 2 as blowing agents, in a batch foaming apparatus, at different temperatures, pressures and pressure drop rates, to evaluate the processing window and the final properties of the foams. Foams with densities of 0.1 g/cm 3 and morphologies characterized by uniform distributions of cells with 10 μm diameters were obtained. Results indicated the suitability of zein and gelatin for being processed with classical thermoplastic processing technologies including melt mixing and foaming and their potentials as biodegradable polymers.

          Most cited references45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Zein: the industrial protein from corn

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Relationship between triple-helix content and mechanical properties of gelatin films.

            This paper reports a study on the influence of the renaturation level of gelatin on the mechanical and swelling properties of gelatin films. Films at different renaturation level were obtained from gelatin samples with different Bloom index. It was verified that the triple-helix content, calculated from the values of the enthalpy of denaturation associated to the endothermal transition at about 41 degrees C of gelatin, increases with the Bloom index. The d.s.c. data are further supported by the results of the X-ray diffraction investigation carried out on the same samples. The increase of triple-helix content provokes a significant reduction in the degree of swelling, and a remarkable improvement of the mechanical properties of the films. The elastic Young's modulus, E, increases linearly with the renaturation level, from 3.6 to 12.0 MPa. Crosslinking with GTA 1% remarkably reduces the degree of swelling of all the samples, and induces a further increase of the Young's modulus, which reaches values up to 27 MPa.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Zein: A History of Processing and Use


                Author and article information

                International Polymer Processing
                Carl Hanser Verlag
                : 22
                : 5
                : 480-488
                1 Department of Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
                2 Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy
                Author notes
                Mail address: Ernesto Di Maio, Department of Materials and Production Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, Italy. E-mail: edimaio@ 123456unina.it
                © 2007, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich
                : 2 May 2007
                : 25 July 2007
                Page count
                References: 48, Pages: 9
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.hanser-elibrary.com/loi/ipp
                Invited Papers

                Polymer science,Materials technology,Materials characterization,General engineering,Polymer chemistry


                Comment on this article