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      Structural differences between mesophilic, moderately thermophilic and extremely thermophilic protein subunits: results of a comprehensive survey

      ,

      Structure

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 52

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          Dominant forces in protein folding.

           K Dill (1990)
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            The universal ancestor.

             C Woese (1998)
            A genetic annealing model for the universal ancestor of all extant life is presented; the name of the model derives from its resemblance to physical annealing. The scenario pictured starts when "genetic temperatures" were very high, cellular entities (progenotes) were very simple, and information processing systems were inaccurate. Initially, both mutation rate and lateral gene transfer levels were elevated. The latter was pandemic and pervasive to the extent that it, not vertical inheritance, defined the evolutionary dynamic. As increasingly complex and precise biological structures and processes evolved, both the mutation rate and the scope and level of lateral gene transfer, i.e., evolutionary temperature, dropped, and the evolutionary dynamic gradually became that characteristic of modern cells. The various subsystems of the cell "crystallized," i.e., became refractory to lateral gene transfer, at different stages of "cooling," with the translation apparatus probably crystallizing first. Organismal lineages, and so organisms as we know them, did not exist at these early stages. The universal phylogenetic tree, therefore, is not an organismal tree at its base but gradually becomes one as its peripheral branchings emerge. The universal ancestor is not a discrete entity. It is, rather, a diverse community of cells that survives and evolves as a biological unit. This communal ancestor has a physical history but not a genealogical one. Over time, this ancestor refined into a smaller number of increasingly complex cell types with the ancestors of the three primary groupings of organisms arising as a result.
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              Protein thermal stability, hydrogen bonds, and ion pairs.

               S Woell,  P Argos,  D. G. Vogt (1997)
              Researchers in both academia and industry have expressed strong interest in comprehending the mechanisms responsible for enhancing the thermostability of proteins. Many and different structural principles have been postulated for the increased stability. Here, 16 families of proteins with different thermal stability were theoretically examined by comparing their respective fractional polar atom surface areas and the number and type of hydrogen bonds and salt links between explicit protein atoms. In over 80% of the families, correlations were found between the thermostability of the familial members and an increase in the number of hydrogen bonds as well as an increase in the fractional polar surface which results in added hydrogen bonding density to water. Thus increased hydrogen bonding may provide the most general explanation for thermal stability in proteins. The number of ion pairs was also found to increase with thermal stability in two-thirds of the families tested; however, their rate of addition was only about one-sixth that for internal hydrogen bonds amongst the protein atoms. The preferred residue exchanges and surface atom types useful in engineering enhanced stability were also examined.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Structure
                Structure
                Elsevier BV
                09692126
                May 2000
                May 2000
                : 8
                : 5
                : 493-504
                Article
                10.1016/S0969-2126(00)00133-7
                © 2000

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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