18
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Studies of synthetic chalcone derivatives as potential inhibitors of secretory phospholipase A 2, cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenase and pro-inflammatory cytokines

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Arachidonic acid metabolism leads to the generation of key lipid mediators which play a fundamental role during inflammation. The inhibition of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism has been considered as a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect with enhanced spectrum of activity. A series of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one derivatives were investigated for anti-inflammatory related activities involving inhibition of secretory phospholipase A 2, cyclooxygenases, soybean lipoxygenase, and lipopolysaccharides-induced secretion of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages. The results from the above mentioned assays exhibited that the synthesized compounds were effective inhibitors of pro-inflammatory enzymes and cytokines. The results also revealed that the chalcone derivatives with 4-methlyamino ethanol substitution seem to be significant for inhibition of enzymes and cytokines. Molecular docking experiments were carried out to elucidate the molecular aspects of the observed inhibitory activities of the investigated compounds. Present findings increase the possibility that these chalcone derivatives might serve as a beneficial starting point for the design and development of improved anti-inflammatory agents.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 46

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Anti-inflammatory plant flavonoids and cellular action mechanisms.

           H. Kim,  Sam Sik Kang,  K Son (2004)
          Plant flavonoids show anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo. Although not fully understood, several action mechanisms are proposed to explain in vivo anti-inflammatory action. One of the important mechanisms is an inhibition of eicosanoid generating enzymes including phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases, thereby reducing the concentrations of prostanoids and leukotrienes. Recent studies have also shown that certain flavonoids, especially flavone derivatives, express their anti-inflammatory activity at least in part by modulation of proinflammatory gene expression such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and several pivotal cytokines. Due to these unique action mechanisms and significant in vivo activity, flavonoids are considered to be reasonable candidates for new anti-inflammatory drugs. To clearly establish the therapeutic value in inflammatory disorders, in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, and action mechanism of varieties of flavonoids need to be further elucidated. This review summarizes the effect of flavonoids on eicosanoid and nitric oxide generating enzymes and the effect on expression of proinflammatory genes. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity is also discussed. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expression, certain flavonoids have a potential for new anti-inflammatory agents.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of cyclooxygenase 2 in inflammation and pain.

            Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but significant side effects such as gastrointestinal erosion and renal damage limit their use. NSAIDs inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane. Two forms of COX have been identified--COX-1, which is constitutively expressed in most tissues and organs, and the inducible enzyme, COX-2, which has been localized primarily to inflammatory cells and tissues. In an animal model of acute inflammation (injection of carrageenan into the footpad), edema was produced that was associated with marked accumulation of COX-2 mRNA and thromboxane. A selective inhibitor of COX-2 (SC-58125) inhibited edema at the inflammatory site and was analgesic but had no effect on PG production in the stomach and did not cause gastric toxicity. These data suggest that selective inhibition of COX-2 may produce superior antiinflammatory drugs with substantial safety advantages over existing NSAIDs.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors or antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis.

              This review has summarized some of the evidence suggesting that cytokines may play an important role in mediating pathophysiologic events in RA. However, these proteins are capable of mediating both stimulatory (agonist) and inhibitory (antagonist) effects in the rheumatoid synovium. GM-CSF, IL-1, TNF alpha, and PDGF are all produced in the rheumatoid synovium and may function to induce inflammation, enzyme release, fibroblast proliferation, and tissue destruction. Local release of IL-6 may alter the effects of IL-1 and TNF alpha, as well as induce Ig production and hepatic synthesis of acute-phase proteins. However, specific inhibitors of IL-1 and TNF alpha exist, which, if also released into the synovium, may antagonize the proinflammatory effects of these cytokines. In addition, IL-1 may have antiinflammatory effects, such as the induction of the synthesis of collagen and enzyme inhibitors by chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts. Stimulation of these latter cells by TGF beta also may result in decreased matrix degradation and increased formation of scar tissue. The developing scenario is one of cell-cell interactions that are influenced in positive and negative manners by the local release of various mediators. A further understanding of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors in the rheumatoid synovium may lead to the development of more specific and effective therapeutic agents.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                16 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1405-1418
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Drug and Herbal Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
                [3 ]Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
                Author notes

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Correspondence: Ibrahim Jantan; Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel +60 3 9289 7315, Fax +60 3 2698 3271, Email profibj@ 123456gmail.com ; snab_hussaini@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-8-1405
                10.2147/DDDT.S67370
                4172049
                © 2014 Jantan et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Comments

                Comment on this article