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      Therapeutic Effects of PPARα Agonist on Ocular Neovascularization in Models Recapitulating Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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          This study was designed to evaluate effects of fenofibric acid (Feno-FA), a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) agonist, on ocular neovascularization (NV) in models recapitulating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to explore whether the effects are PPARα dependent.


          Laser-induced choroidal NV (CNV) in rats and very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout ( Vldlr −/− ) mice received daily intraperitoneal injections of Feno-FA or vehicle. Vascular leakage was examined by fundus fluorescein angiography and permeability assay using Evans blue as tracer. In CNV rats, severity of CNV was evaluated by CNV areas and CNV volume. In Vldlr −/− mice, subretinal NV (SRNV) and intraretinal NV (IRNV) were quantified in choroid flat mount and retina flat mount, respectively. Inflammatory factors were measured using Western blotting and retinal leukostasis assay. Further, Pparα −/− mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used for laser-induced CNV and treated with Feno-FA to explore the underlying mechanism.


          Feno-FA significantly reduced vascular leakage in CNV rats and Vldlr −/− mice, reduced CNV volume in laser-induced CNV rats, and suppressed SRNV and IRNV in Vldlr −/− mice. In addition, Feno-FA downregulated the expression of inflammatory factors, including VEGF, TNF-α, and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), in the eyecups of CNV rats and decreased adherent retinal leukocytes in Vldlr −/− mice. Furthermore, Pparα −/− mice developed more severe CNV compared with WT mice, and PPARα knockout abolished the beneficial effects of Feno-FA on CNV.


          Feno-FA has therapeutic effects on ocular NV in models recapitulating neovascular AMD through a PPARα-dependent mechanism.

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          Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): tissue distribution of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma in the adult rat.

          Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that can be activated by various xenobiotics and natural fatty acids. These transcription factors primarily regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism and also play a role in adipocyte differentiation. We present the expression patterns of the PPAR subtypes in the adult rat, determined by in situ hybridization using specific probes for PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma, and by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody that recognizes the three rat PPAR subtypes. In numerous cell types from either ectodermal, mesodermal, or endodermal origin, PPARs are coexpressed, with relative levels varying between them from one cell type to the other. PPAR-alpha is highly expressed in hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, enterocytes, and the proximal tubule cells of kidney. PPAR-beta is expressed ubiquitously and often at higher levels than PPAR-alpha and -gamma. PPAR-gamma is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and the immune system. Our results suggest new potential directions to investigate the functions of the different PPAR subtypes.
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            Effect of fenofibrate on the need for laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy (FIELD study): a randomised controlled trial.

            Laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy is often associated with visual field reduction and other ocular side-effects. Our aim was to assess whether long-term lipid-lowering therapy with fenofibrate could reduce the progression of retinopathy and the need for laser treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a multinational randomised trial of 9795 patients aged 50-75 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive fenofibrate 200 mg/day (n=4895) or matching placebo (n=4900). At each clinic visit, information concerning laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy-a prespecified tertiary endpoint of the main study-was gathered. Adjudication by ophthalmologists masked to treatment allocation defined instances of laser treatment for macular oedema, proliferative retinopathy, or other eye conditions. In a substudy of 1012 patients, standardised retinal photography was done and photographs graded with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) criteria to determine the cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy and its component lesions. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN64783481. Laser treatment was needed more frequently in participants with poorer glycaemic or blood pressure control than in those with good control of these factors, and in those with a greater burden of clinical microvascular disease, but the need for such treatment was not affected by plasma lipid concentrations. The requirement for first laser treatment for all retinopathy was significantly lower in the fenofibrate group than in the placebo group (164 [3.4%] patients on fenofibrate vs 238 [4.9%] on placebo; hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84; p=0.0002; absolute risk reduction 1.5% [0.7-2.3]). In the ophthalmology substudy, the primary endpoint of 2-step progression of retinopathy grade did not differ significantly between the two groups overall (46 [9.6%] patients on fenofibrate vs 57 [12.3%] on placebo; p=0.19) or in the subset of patients without pre-existing retinopathy (43 [11.4%] vs 43 [11.7%]; p=0.87). By contrast, in patients with pre-existing retinopathy, significantly fewer patients on fenofibrate had a 2-step progression than did those on placebo (three [3.1%] patients vs 14 [14.6%]; p=0.004). An exploratory composite endpoint of 2-step progression of retinopathy grade, macular oedema, or laser treatments was significantly lower in the fenofibrate group than in the placebo group (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.94; p=0.022). Treatment with fenofibrate in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus reduces the need for laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy, although the mechanism of this effect does not seem to be related to plasma concentrations of lipids.
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              Tissue distribution and quantification of the expression of mRNAs of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver X receptor-alpha in humans: no alteration in adipose tissue of obese and NIDDM patients.

              Members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family might be involved in pathologies with altered lipid metabolism. They participate in the control of the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. In addition, thiazolidinediones improve insulin resistance in vivo by activating PPAR gamma. However, little is known regarding their tissue distribution and relative expression in humans. Using a quantitative and sensitive reverse transcription (RT)-competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, we determined the distribution and relative mRNA expression of the four PPARs (alpha,beta, gamma1, and gamma2) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR alpha) in the main tissues implicated in lipid metabolism. PPAR alpha and LXR alpha were mainly expressed in liver, while PPAR gamma1 predominated in adipose tissue and large intestine. We found that PPAR gamma2 mRNA was a minor isoform, even in adipose tissue, thus causing question of its role in humans. PPAR beta mRNA was present in all the tissues tested at low levels. In addition, PPAR gamma mRNA was barely detectable in skeletal muscle, suggesting that improvement of insulin resistance with thiazolidinediones may not result from a direct effect of these agents on PPAR gamma in muscle. Obesity and NIDDM were not associated with change in PPARs and LXR alpha expression in adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of PPAR gamma1, the predominant form in adipocytes, did not correlate with BMI, leptin mRNA levels, or fasting insulinemia in 29 subjects with various degrees of obesity. These results indicated that obesity is not associated with alteration in PPAR gene expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans.

                Author and article information

                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci
                Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci
                Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
                The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology
                October 2017
                : 58
                : 12
                : 5065-5075
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
                [2 ]Department of Cell Biology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian-Xing Ma, Department of Physiology, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 941 Stanton L. Young Boulevard, BSEB 328B, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA; Jian-xing-Ma@ 123456ouhsc.edu .

                FQ and GM contributed equally to the work presented here and should therefore be regarded as equivalent authors.

                iovs-58-11-59 IOVS-17-22091
                Copyright 2017 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Physiology and Pharmacology


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