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      Effects of a single long-acting muscarinic antagonist agent and a long-acting muscarinic antagonist/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist combination on lung function and symptoms in untreated COPD patients in Japan

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          A large body of evidence suggests that long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA)/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combinations induce a strong synergistic bronchodilatory effect in human isolated airways. Moreover, a recent post hoc analysis demonstrated clinical synergism between LABAs and LAMAs, which induces a synergistic improvement not only in lung function but also in dyspnea in COPD patients.


          The aim of this study is to examine the baseline factors related to improvement in lung function or clinical symptoms that results from the administration of LAMA or LAMA/LABA and to compare the differences in improvement in lung function or clinical symptoms between LAMA and LAMA/LABA.


          Among 829 patients with COPD who were treated with LAMA or LAMA/LABA in our hospital, 112 patients (aged 40–89 years) matched the criteria. Of these 112 patients, 71 received LAMA (LAMA group) and 41 received LAMA/LABA (LAMA/LABA group) as the initial treatment. Various examination results such as lung function test values, symptom change, and frequency of exacerbations were compared between the two groups.


          Compared with the monotherapy, the combination therapy significantly improved the FEV 1, inspiratory capacity (IC), and total COPD assessment test (CAT) scores. Comparing the improvement in each domain of the CAT produced by the combination therapy with that of the monotherapy, larger improvements were found for the domains of going out and sleeping. The frequency of exacerbations during the 24 weeks was significantly lower in the combination therapy group than in the LAMA monotherapy group ( P=0.034). Although no relationship was found between improvement in FEV 1 and any pretreatment factors in the LAMA/LABA group, the improvement in the CAT score was strongly related to the baseline CAT score, smoking index, and air trapping index ( P-value <1×10 −4).


          In this study of clinical practice, we found that LAMA/LABA combination therapy improved the clinical symptoms of COPD and IC and that the effects of the combination therapy were consistent with those observed in previous clinical trials.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The 24-h lung-function profile of once-daily tiotropium and olodaterol fixed-dose combination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          This study investigated the effects on 24-h lung function and lung volume of a once-daily fixed-dose combination (FDC) of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist tiotropium and the long-acting β2-agonist olodaterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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            Pharmacological characterization of the interaction between aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate on human isolated bronchi.

            Long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) cause airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation via different signal transduction pathways, but there are limited data concerning the interaction between these two drug classes on human bronchi. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential synergistic interaction between aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate on the relaxation of human ASM. We evaluated the influence of aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate on the contractile response induced by acetylcholine or electrical field stimulation (EFS) on human isolated airways (segmental bronchi and bronchioles). We analyzed the potential synergistic interaction between the compounds when administered in combination by using Bliss independence (BI) theory. Both aclidinium bromide and formoterol fumarate completely relaxed segmental bronchi pre-contracted with acetylcholine (Emax: 97.5±2.6% and 96.4±1.1%; pEC50 8.5±0.1 and 8.8±0.1; respectively). Formoterol fumarate, but not aclidinium bromide, abolished the contraction induced by acetylcholine in bronchioles (Emax: 68.1±4.5% and 99.0±5.6%; pEC50 7.9±0.3 and 8.4±0.3; respectively). The BI analysis indicated synergistic interaction at low concentrations in segmental bronchi (+18.4±2.7%; P<0.05 versus expected effect) and from low to high concentrations in bronchioles (+19.7±0.9%; P<0.05 versus expected effect). Low concentrations of both drugs produced a synergistic relaxant interaction on isolated bronchi stimulated with EFS that was sustained for 6h post-treatment (+55.1±9.4%; P<0.05 versus expected effect). These results suggest that combining aclidinium bromide plus formoterol fumarate provides synergistic benefit on ASM relaxation of both medium and small human airways, which may have major implications for the use of this combination in the clinic.
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              Impact of LABA/LAMA combination on exercise endurance and lung hyperinflation in COPD: A pair-wise and network meta-analysis.

              The ability to exercise is an important clinical outcome in COPD, and the improvement in exercise capacity is recognized to be an important goal in the management of COPD. Therefore, since the current interest in the use of bronchodilators in COPD is gradually shifting towards the dual bronchodilation, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of LABA/LAMA combination on exercise capacity and lung hyperinflation in COPD.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                08 October 2018
                : 13
                : 3141-3147
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, h.yamada@
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hitachinaka General Hospital, Hitachi Ltd, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki, Japan, h.yamada@
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hideyasu Yamada, Department of Pulmonology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8577, Ibaraki, Japan, Tel +81 29 354 5111, Email h.yamada@
                © 2018 Yamada et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                lama/laba, lama, fev1, copd assessment test, copd


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