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      Abscesos cerebelosos como complicación infrecuente de absceso hepático amebiano: Reporte de un caso

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          Abstract

          El absceso cerebral es una infrecuente y fatal complicación extraintestinal de la infección por E. histolytica. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que falleció por múltiples abscesos cerebelosos asociados con absceso hepático amebiano. Caso clínico: Se trata de paciente masculino, 62 años, proveniente del área metropolitana. Consulta por presentar dolor abdominal en hipocondrio derecho, nauseas, vómitos, fiebre y evacuaciones líquidas. Se diagnosticó absceso hepático de 12 x 8 cm de diámetro, por ultrasonido abdominal, correlacionado con la clínica y hallazgos de laboratorio (leucocitosis, elevación de transaminasas y fosfatasas alcalinas). Adicionalmente, el ELISA indirecto para determinar IgG para E. histolytica resultó positivo. La biopsia guiada por ultrasonido sugiere absceso hepático. Recibió tratamiento con metronidazol y ciprofloxacina por 10 días presentando mejoría clínica y de laboratorio. Sin embargo, consulta nuevamente con reaparición de los síntomas, pero se agrega cefalea occipital de fuerte intensidad. Al examen físico de reingreso se encuentran cifras tensiónales de 157/122 mmHg, refractarias al tratamiento, así como hallazgos de déficit neurológico sugestivos de síndrome cerebeloso. Se realizó tomografía de cráneo donde se evidencian múltiples imágenes hipodensas en probable relación con abscesos. Se planteó drenaje quirúrgico, sin embargo el paciente, falleció a las pocas horas.

          Translated abstract

          Brain abscess are a rare and fatal complication of infection with extraintestinal E. histolytica. We present a patient who died of multiple cerebellar abscesses associated with amebic liver abscess. Clinical case: male, 62 years old, from the metropolitan area. Who came in 4 weeks before his death due to abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium, nausea, vomiting, fever and diarrhea. Liver abscess were diagnosed in 12 x 8 cm diameter, by abdominal ultrasound, correlated with clinical and laboratory findings (leukocytosis, high transaminases and alkaline phosphatases). Additionally, the indirect ELISA to determine IgG to E. histolytica was positive. Biopsy guided by ultrasound is concluded as abscess. The patient received treatment with metronidazole and ciprofloxacin for 10 days showing improvement. However, checked again with recurrence of symptoms, but adds strong occipital headache intensity. Initial physical examination re-found the blood pressure 157/122 mmHg, refractory to treatment, and findings of neurological deficits suggestive of cerebellar syndrome. Cranial tomography was performed which showed multiple hypodense images in connection with probable abscess. Surgical drainage was raised; however the patient evolved torpidly and died within hours.

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          Most cited references23

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          Metronidazole. A therapeutic review and update.

          The nitroimidazole antibiotic metronidazole has a limited spectrum of activity that encompasses various protozoans and most Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Metronidazole has activity against protozoans like Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, for which the drug was first approved as an effective treatment. Anaerobic bacteria which are typically sensitive are primarily Gram-negative anaerobes belonging to the Bacteroides and Fusobacterium spp. Gram-positive anaerobes such as peptostreptococci and Clostridia spp. are likely to test sensitive to metronidazole, but resistant isolates are probably encountered with greater frequency than with the Gram-negative anaerobes. Gardnerella vaginalis is a pleomorphic Gram-variable bacterial bacillus that is also susceptible to metronidazole. Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with gastritis and duodenal ulcers. Classic regimens for eradicating this pathogen have included metronidazole, usually with acid suppression medication plus bismuth and amoxicillin. The activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bowel flora has been used for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with Crohn's disease who might develop an infectious complication. Treatment of Clostridium difficile-induced pseudomembraneous colitis has usually been with oral metronidazole or vancomycin, but the lower cost and similar efficacy of metronidazole, coupled with the increased concern about imprudent use of vancomycin leading to increased resistance in enterococci, have made metronidazole the preferred agent here. Metronidazole has played an important role in anaerobic-related infections. Advantages to using metronidazole are the percentage of sensitive Gram-negative anaerobes, its availability as oral and intravenous dosage forms, its rapid bacterial killing, its good tissue penetration, its considerably lower chance of inducing C. difficile colitis, and expense. Metronidazole has notable effectiveness in treating anaerobic brain abscesses. Metronidazole is a cost-effective agent due to its low acquisition cost, its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, an acceptable adverse effect profile, and its undiminished antimicrobial activity. While its role as part of a therapeutic regimen for treating mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections has been reduced by newer, more expensive combination therapies, these new combinations have not been shown to have any therapeutic advantage over metronidazole. Although the use of metronidazole on a global scale has been curtailed by newer agents for various infections, metronidazole still has a role for these and other therapeutic uses. Many clinicians still consider metronidazole to be the 'gold standard' antibiotic against which all other antibiotics with anaerobic activity should be compared.
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            Invasive amebiasis: an update on diagnosis and management.

            In its invasive form, the trophozoite is responsible for clinical syndromes, ranging from classical dysentery to extraintestinal disease with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis. Abdominal pain, tenderness and diarrhea of watery stool, sometimes with blood, are the predominant symptoms of amebic colitis. Besides the microscopic identification of Entamoeba histolytica, diagnosis should be based on the detection of specific antigens in the stool or PCR associated with the occult blood in the stool. Amebic dysentery is treated with metronidazole, followed by a luminal amebicide. The trophozoite reaches the liver causing hepatic amebiasis. Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms. The diagnosis is made by the finding of E. histolytica in the hepatic fluid, or in the necrotic material at the edge of the lesion in a minority of patients, and by detection of antigens or DNA. Ultrasonography is the initial imaging procedure indicated. The local perforation of hepatic lesion leads to important and serious complications.
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              Detection of serum antibody to Entameba histolytica in various population samples of amebic infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

              Microscopic identification of Entameba histolytica in stool is insensitive to differentiate this pathogenic ameba from morphologically identical Entameba dispar. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was applied for diagnosing amebiasis by detection of E. histolytica antibody. A total of 258 sample sera were analyzed from five different groups including amebiasis patients, E. histolytica/E. dispar asymptomatic cyst carriers, patients clinically presumed to have intestinal and extra-intestinal amebiasis and healthy control. From 51 E. histolytica/E. dispar cysts passers identified by microscopy and culture, a positive anti-amebic antibody was measured only for eight specimens (15.6%) and 43 cyst carriers showed an absorbance less than cut-off likely due to E. dispar infection. These findings suggest usefulness of ELISA method in differentiation of Entameba species, in clinical laboratories less equipped with biological and biochemical methods or antigen capture kits.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                gen
                Gen
                Gen
                Sociedad Venezolana de Gastroentereología (Caracas )
                0016-3503
                June 2009
                : 63
                : 2
                : 121-122
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Hospital de Lidice Venezuela
                Article
                S0016-35032009000200011
                512b1781-3374-4777-a9de-94ad4a6fcfbb

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0016-3503&lng=en

                E. histolytica,liver abscess,cerebellar syndrome,abdominal ultrasound,immunodiagnosis,absceso hepático,síndrome cerebeloso,Ultrasonido abdominal,inmunodiagnóst

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