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      An Eco-Friendly, Interference, and Solvent Free Surfactant-Assisted Dual-Wavelength β-CorrectionSpectrometric Method for Total Determination and Speciation of Cu 2+ Ions in Water


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          Spectral interference through the presence of uninformative variables, excess reagents, and complications in the refinement of the analyte signal is common in the quest to identify complex species in real samples. Therefore, an economical green, facile, and sensitive strategy has been developed for Cu 2+ detection using the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulphate- (SDS-) assisted dual-wavelength β-correction spectrophotometric strategy combined with the chromogenic reagent zincon (ZI). The low limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of Cu 2+ using ordinary (single wavelength) spectrophotometry were 0.19 (3.02) and 0.63 (10.0)  μgmL −1, and these values were improved to 0.08 (1.27) and 0.26  μgmL −1 (4.12  μM)) using β-correction (dual wavelength) spectrophotometry, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were improved from 0.08 (1.27) and 0.26 (4.12)  μgmL −1 to 0.02 (0.32) and 0.08  μgmL −1 (1.27  μM) using SDS-assisted dual- β-correction spectrometry, respectively. Ringbom, s, and the corrected absorbance ( A c ) versus Cu 2+ concentration plots were linear over the concentration range 1.10–2.4 (17.4–38.1) and 0.50–2.40  μgmL −1 (7.94–38.1  μM), respectively. Sandell's sensitivity index of 3.0 × 10 −3μg/cm 2 was achieved. The selectivity was further confirmed via monitoring the impact of common diverse ions and surfactants on the corrected absorbance. Total determination and Cu 2+ speciation in water were favorably implemented and validated by ICP-OES at 95% ( P=0.05). Satisfactory Cu 2+ recoveries in tap (92.2–98.0%) and mineral (105–111.0%) water samples were achieved. The sensing system is simple, reliable, sensitive, and selective for Cu 2+ detection.

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          Copper bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and tolerance in plants: A comprehensive review.

          Copper (Cu) is an essential element for humans and plants when present in lesser amount, while in excessive amounts it exerts detrimental effects. There subsists a narrow difference amid the indispensable, positive and detrimental concentration of Cu in living system, which substantially alters with Cu speciation, and form of living organisms. Consequently, it is vital to monitor its bioavailability, speciation, exposure levels and routes in the living organisms. The ingestion of Cu-laced food crops is the key source of this heavy metal toxicity in humans. Hence, it is necessary to appraise the biogeochemical behaviour of Cu in soil-plant system with esteem to their quantity and speciation. On the basis of existing research, this appraisal traces a probable connexion midst: Cu levels, sources, chemistry, speciation and bioavailability in the soil. Besides, the functions of protein transporters in soil-plant Cu transport, and the detrimental effect of Cu on morphological, physiological and nutrient uptake in plants has also been discussed in the current manuscript. Mechanisms related to detoxification strategies like antioxidative response and generation of glutathione and phytochelatins to combat Cu-induced toxicity in plants is discussed as well. We also delimits the Cu accretion in food crops and allied health perils from soils encompassing less or high Cu quantity. Finally, an overview of various techniques involved in the reclamation and restoration of Cu-contaminated soils has been provided.
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            β-Galactosidase-based colorimetric paper sensor for determination of heavy metals.

            We demonstrate a novel approach for rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of heavy metals using a solid-phase bioactive lab-on-paper sensor that is inkjet printed with sol-gel entrapped reagents to allow colorimetric visualization of the enzymatic activity of β-galactosidase (B-GAL). The bioactive paper assay is able to detect a range of heavy metals, either alone or as mixtures, in as little as 10 min, with detection limits as follows: Hg(II) = 0.001 ppm; Ag(I) = 0.002 ppm, Cu(II) = 0.020 ppm; Cd(II) = 0.020 ppm; Pb(II) = 0.140 ppm; Cr(VI) = 0.150 ppm; Ni(II) = 0.230 ppm. The paper-based assay was immune to interferences from nontoxic metal ions such as Na(+) or K(+), could be used to detect heavy metals that were spiked into tap water or lake water, and provided quantitative data that was in agreement with values obtained by atomic absorption. With the incorporation of standard chromogenic metal sensing reagents into a multiplexed bioactive paper sensor, it was possible to identify specific metals in mixtures, albeit with much lower detection limits than were obtained with the enzymatic assay. The paper-based sensor should be valuable for rapid, on-site screening of trace levels of heavy metals in resource limited areas and developing countries.
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              A spectrophotometric method for the determination of zinc, copper, and cobalt ions in metalloproteins using Zincon.

              Zincon (2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5'-sulfoformazylbenzene) has long been known as an excellent colorimetric reagent for the detection of zinc and copper ions in aqueous solution. To extend the chelator's versatility to the quantification of metal ions in metalloproteins, the spectral properties of Zincon and its complexes with Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Co(2+) were investigated in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride and urea, two common denaturants used to labilize metal ions in proteins. These studies revealed the detection of metals to be generally more sensitive with urea. In addition, pH profiles recorded for these metals indicated the optimal pH for complex formation and stability to be 9.0. As a consequence, an optimized method that allows the facile determination of Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Co(2+) with detection limits in the high nanomolar range is presented. Furthermore, a simple two-step procedure for the quantification of both Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) within the same sample is described. Using the prototypical Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-protein superoxide dismutase as an example, the effectiveness of this method of dual metal quantification in metalloproteins is demonstrated. Thus, the spectrophotometric determination of metal ions with Zincon can be exploited as a rapid and inexpensive means of assessing the metal contents of zinc-, copper-, cobalt-, and zinc/copper-containing proteins. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Int J Anal Chem
                Int J Anal Chem
                International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
                4 November 2023
                : 2023
                : 5001869
                1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
                2Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
                3Department of Basic Sciences, ta Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology, Mansoura 35111, Egypt
                4Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Daipayan Roy

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Hassan Alwael et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 8 May 2023
                : 11 July 2023
                : 20 September 2023
                Funded by: Saudi Basic Industries Corporation
                Funded by: King Abdulaziz University
                Award ID: S-31-247-1440
                Research Article

                Analytical chemistry
                Analytical chemistry


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