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      Novel Respiratory Impedance-Based Phenotypes Reflect Different Pathophysiologies in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

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          The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive method to measure respiratory impedance, the respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs). The disease probability measure (DPM) is a useful computed tomography (CT) imaging variable for the assessment of gas trapping and emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pairs of inspiratory and expiratory CT images. We aimed to develop FOT-based phenotypes and determine whether the phenotypes and their imaging characteristics could facilitate the understanding of COPD pathophysiology.

          Patients and methods

          FOT and spirometry were examined in 164 COPD patients and 22 non-COPD smokers. COPD patients were divided into four FOT-based phenotypes (NL, normal group; RD, resistance-dominant group; XD, reactance-dominant group; and MIX, mixed group) based on the 3rd quartile values of R5 (Rrs at 5Hz) and X5 (Xrs at 5Hz) in the non-COPD group. The emphysematous lesions and the airway lesions were quantitatively assessed in CT images by low attenuation volume and the square root of the wall area of a hypothetical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (√Aaw at Pi10), respectively. DPM imaging analysis was also performed in 131 COPD patients. We investigated the differences in COPD parameters between the FOT-based phenotypes.


          √Aaw at Pi10 were significantly higher in the RD, XD, and MIX groups than in the NL group. The XD group showed lower pulmonary function and higher dyspnea scores than the RD group. No significant changes in DPM values were observed between the RD and the NL groups. The gas-trapping area was significantly higher in the XD group than in the NL group. The MIX group showed the highest dyspnea score, most emphysematous lesions, and the lowest forced expiratory volume in 1 s % predicted value.


          The FOT-based phenotyping may be useful to assess pathophysiological changes of COPD with CT assessments.

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          Most cited references 22

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          CT-based Biomarker Provides Unique Signature for Diagnosis of COPD Phenotypes and Disease Progression

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a highly heterogeneous disorder, composed of varying pathobiology. Accurate detection of COPD subtypes by image biomarkers are urgently needed to enable individualized treatment thus improving patient outcome. We adapted the Parametric Response Map (PRM), a voxel-wise image analysis technique, for assessing COPD phenotype. We analyzed whole lung CT scans of 194 COPD individuals acquired at inspiration and expiration from the COPDGene Study. PRM identified the extent of functional small airways disease (fSAD) and emphysema as well as provided CT-based evidence that supports the concept that fSAD precedes emphysema with increasing COPD severity. PRM is a versatile imaging biomarker capable of diagnosing disease extent and phenotype, while providing detailed spatial information of disease distribution and location. PRMs ability to differentiate between specific COPD phenotypes will allow for more accurate diagnosis of individual patients complementing standard clinical techniques.
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            Computed tomographic measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema in smokers. Correlation with lung function.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by emphysema or airway narrowing, or both. Low attenuation areas (LAA) on computed tomography (CT) have been shown to represent macroscopic or microscopic emphysema, or both. However CT has not been used to quantify the airway abnormalities in smokers with or without airflow obstruction. In this study, we used CT to evaluate both emphysema and airway wall thickening in 114 smokers. The CT measurements revealed that a decreased FEV(1) (%predicted) is associated with an increase of airway wall area and an increase of emphysema. Although both airway wall thickening and emphysema (LAA) correlated with measurements of lung function, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the combination of airway and emphysema measurements improved the estimate of pulmonary function test abnormalities. We conclude that both CT measurements of airway dimensions and emphysema are useful and complementary in the evaluation of the lung of smokers.
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              The forced oscillation technique in clinical practice: methodology, recommendations and future developments


                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                20 December 2019
                : 14
                : 2971-2977
                [1 ]Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science , Shiga, Japan
                [2 ]Health Administration Center, Shiga University of Medical Science , Shiga, Japan
                [3 ]Ryujin Medical Clinic , Osaka, Japan
                [4 ]Center for Environmental Conservation and Research Safety, Department of Occupation Health, Tohoku University , Miyagi, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Emiko Ogawa Health Administration Center, Shiga University of Medical Science , Seta Tsukinowa-Cho, Otsu, Shiga520-2192, JapanTel/Fax +81-77-548-2212 Email
                © 2019 Matsuo et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 7
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                oscillometry, emphysema, exhalation, quantitative evaluation, copd


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