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      Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice

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          Abstract

          Prostate cancer patients have increased levels of stress and anxiety. Conversely, men who take beta blockers, which interfere with signaling from the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, have a lower incidence of prostate cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying stress-prostate cancer interactions are unknown. Here, we report that stress promotes prostate carcinogenesis in mice in an adrenaline-dependent manner. Behavioral stress inhibited apoptosis and delayed prostate tumor involution both in phosphatase and tensin homolog-deficient (PTEN-deficient) prostate cancer xenografts treated with PI3K inhibitor and in prostate tumors of mice with prostate-restricted expression of c-MYC (Hi-Myc mice) subjected to androgen ablation therapy with bicalutamide. Additionally, stress accelerated prostate cancer development in Hi-Myc mice. The effects of stress were prevented by treatment with the selective β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) antagonist ICI118,551 or by inducible expression of PKA inhibitor (PKI) or of BCL2-associated death promoter (BAD) with a mutated PKA phosphorylation site (BADS112A) in xenograft tumors. Effects of stress were also blocked in Hi-Myc mice expressing phosphorylation-deficient BAD (BAD3SA). These results demonstrate interactions between prostate tumors and the psychosocial environment mediated by activation of an adrenaline/ADRB2/PKA/BAD antiapoptotic signaling pathway. Our findings could be used to identify prostate cancer patients who could benefit from stress reduction or from pharmacological inhibition of stress-induced signaling.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Serine phosphorylation of death agonist BAD in response to survival factor results in binding to 14-3-3 not BCL-X(L)

          Extracellular survival factors alter a cell's susceptibility to apoptosis, often through posttranslational mechanisms. However, no consistent relationship has been established between such survival signals and the BCL-2 family, where the balance of death agonists versus antagonists determines susceptibility. One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with BCL-X(L) or BCL-2, neutralizing their protective effect and promoting cell death. In the presence of survival factor IL-3, cells phosphorylated BAD on two serine residues embedded in 14-3-3 consensus binding sites. Only the nonphosphorylated BAD heterodimerized with BCL-X(L) at membrane sites to promote cell death. Phosphorylated BAD was sequestered in the cytosol bound to 14-3-3. Substitution of serine phosphorylation sites further enhanced BAD's death-promoting activity. The rapid phosphorylation of BAD following IL-3 connects a proximal survival signal with the BCL-2 family, modulating this checkpoint for apoptosis.
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            Integrative genomic profiling of human prostate cancer.

            Annotation of prostate cancer genomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Concordant assessment of DNA copy number, mRNA expression, and focused exon resequencing in 218 prostate cancer tumors identified the nuclear receptor coactivator NCOA2 as an oncogene in approximately 11% of tumors. Additionally, the androgen-driven TMPRSS2-ERG fusion was associated with a previously unrecognized, prostate-specific deletion at chromosome 3p14 that implicates FOXP1, RYBP, and SHQ1 as potential cooperative tumor suppressors. DNA copy-number data from primary tumors revealed that copy-number alterations robustly define clusters of low- and high-risk disease beyond that achieved by Gleason score. The genomic and clinical outcome data from these patients are now made available as a public resource. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The sympathetic nervous system induces a metastatic switch in primary breast cancer.

              Metastasis to distant tissues is the chief driver of breast cancer-related mortality, but little is known about the systemic physiologic dynamics that regulate this process. To investigate the role of neuroendocrine activation in cancer progression, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to track the development of metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer. Stress-induced neuroendocrine activation had a negligible effect on growth of the primary tumor but induced a 30-fold increase in metastasis to distant tissues including the lymph nodes and lung. These effects were mediated by β-adrenergic signaling, which increased the infiltration of CD11b(+)F4/80(+) macrophages into primary tumor parenchyma and thereby induced a prometastatic gene expression signature accompanied by indications of M2 macrophage differentiation. Pharmacologic activation of β-adrenergic signaling induced similar effects, and treatment of stressed animals with the β-antagonist propranolol reversed the stress-induced macrophage infiltration and inhibited tumor spread to distant tissues. The effects of stress on distant metastasis were also inhibited by in vivo macrophage suppression using the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor GW2580. These findings identify activation of the sympathetic nervous system as a novel neural regulator of breast cancer metastasis and suggest new strategies for antimetastatic therapies that target the β-adrenergic induction of prometastatic gene expression in primary breast cancers. ©2010 AACR.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                January 25 2013
                Article
                10.1172/JCI63324
                3561807
                23348742
                5153e3f6-476c-41da-b852-187b8e39da76
                © 2013
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/63324

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