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      Advances in the management of cardiovascular risk for patients with type 2 diabetes: perspectives from the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes

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          Diabetes is a global health emergency projected to affect 642 million people by 2040. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with a range of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that are more than double the incidence of CV disease and significantly increase mortality rates. Diabetes treatments have typically focused on improving glycemic control but their effect on CV outcomes has remained uncertain. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) looked to address this knowledge gap and mandated CV outcome trials (CVOTs) for all new antidiabetic therapies. In 2015, EMPA-REG OUTCOME ® became the first CVOT to present results for a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2; also known as SLC5A2) inhibitor, empagliflozin. Subsequently, a regional meeting of the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes (ACROSS T2D) brought together a respected faculty of international experts and 150 physicians from 14 countries to discuss the current unmet medical needs of patients with T2D, the results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications of these results for clinical practice. This article summarizes the current scientific evidence and the discussions that took place at the ACROSS T2D regional meeting, which was held in Vienna, Austria, on May 30, 2016.

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          Diabetes, other risk factors, and 12-yr cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

          To assess predictors of CVD mortality among men with and without diabetes and to assess the independent effect of diabetes on the risk of CVD death. Participants in this cohort study were screened from 1973 to 1975; vital status has been ascertained over an average of 12 yr of follow-up (range 11-13 yr). Participants were 347,978 men aged 35-57 yr, screened in 20 centers for MRFIT. The outcome measure was CVD mortality. Among 5163 men who reported taking medication for diabetes, 1092 deaths (603 CVD deaths) occurred in an average of 12 yr of follow-up. Among 342,815 men not taking medication for diabetes, 20,867 deaths were identified, 8965 ascribed to CVD. Absolute risk of CVD death was much higher for diabetic than nondiabetic men of every age stratum, ethnic background, and risk factor level--overall three times higher, with adjustment for age, race, income, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and reported number of cigarettes/day (P < 0.0001). For men both with and without diabetes, serum cholesterol level, sBP, and cigarette smoking were significant predictors of CVD mortality. For diabetic men with higher values for each risk factor and their combinations, absolute risk of CVD death increased more steeply than for nondiabetic men, so that absolute excess risk for diabetic men was progressively greater than for nondiabetic men with higher risk factor levels. These findings emphasize the importance of rigorous sustained intervention in people with diabetes to control blood pressure, lower serum cholesterol, and abolish cigarette smoking, and the importance of considering nutritional-hygienic approaches on a mass scale to prevent diabetes.
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            Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

            Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in patients starting renal replacement therapy and affects approximately 40% of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. It increases the risk of death, mainly from cardiovascular causes, and is defined by increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in the absence of other renal diseases. Diabetic nephropathy is categorized into stages: microalbuminuria (UAE >20 microg/min and or =200 microg/min). Hyperglycemia, increased blood pressure levels, and genetic predisposition are the main risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Elevated serum lipids, smoking habits, and the amount and origin of dietary protein also seem to play a role as risk factors. Screening for microalbuminuria should be performed yearly, starting 5 years after diagnosis in type 1 diabetes or earlier in the presence of puberty or poor metabolic control. In patients with type 2 diabetes, screening should be performed at diagnosis and yearly thereafter. Patients with micro- and macroalbuminuria should undergo an evaluation regarding the presence of comorbid associations, especially retinopathy and macrovascular disease. Achieving the best metabolic control (A1c 1.0 g/24 h and increased serum creatinine), using drugs with blockade effect on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and treating dyslipidemia (LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl) are effective strategies for preventing the development of microalbuminuria, in delaying the progression to more advanced stages of nephropathy and in reducing cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
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              Adipokines: molecular links between obesity and atheroslcerosis.

              Atherosclerotic disease remains the leading cause of death in industrialized nations despite major advances in its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The increasing epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes will likely add to this burden. Increasingly, it is becoming apparent that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that releases several bioactive mediators that influence not only body weight homeostasis but also inflammation, coagulation, fibrinolysis, insulin resistance, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. The cellular mechanisms linking obesity and atherosclerosis are complex and have not been fully elucidated. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence on how excess body fat influences cardiovascular health through multiple yet converging pathways. The role of adipose tissue in the development of obesity-linked insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes will be reviewed, including an examination of the molecular links between obesity and atherosclerosis, namely, the effects of fat-derived adipokines. Finally, we will discuss how these new insights may provide us with innovative therapeutic strategies to improve cardiovascular health.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                13 January 2017
                : 13
                : 69-79
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]Richford Gate Medical Practice, London, UK
                [3 ]Cardiovascular Division, Heart Institute, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
                [4 ]First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
                [5 ]Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Würzburg, Germany
                [6 ]First Medical Department, Hanusch-Krankenhaus, Vienna, Austria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Guntram Schernthaner, Department of Medicine, Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Juchgasse 25, 1030 Vienna, Austria, Email guntram@ 123456schernthaner.eu
                © 2017 Schernthaner et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                empagliflozin, type 2 diabetes, cvots, sglt2 inhibitor, cardiovascular risk


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