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      Angiogenesis in ischemic heart disease

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      Nature Medicine

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          Most cited references 47

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          Angiostatin: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma.

          The phenomenon of inhibition of tumor growth by tumor mass has been repeatedly studied, but without elucidation of a satisfactory mechanism. In our animal model, a primary tumor inhibits its remote metastases. After tumor removal, metastases neovascularize and grow. When the primary tumor is present, metastatic growth is suppressed by a circulating angiogenesis inhibitor. Serum and urine from tumor-bearing mice, but not from controls, specifically inhibit endothelial cell proliferation. The activity copurifies with a 38 kDa plasminogen fragment that we have sequenced and named angiostatin. A corresponding fragment of human plasminogen has similar activity. Systemic administration of angiostatin, but not intact plasminogen, potently blocks neovascularization and growth of metastases. We here show that the inhibition of metastases by a primary mouse tumor is mediated, at least in part, by angiostatin.
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            Vasculogenesis.

             W Risau,  I Flamme (1994)
            Induction by fibroblast growth factors of mesoderm during gastrulation leads to blood-forming tissue, including angioblasts and hemopoietic cells, that together constitute the blood islands of the yolk sac. The differentiation of angioblasts from mesoderm and the formation of primitive blood vessels from angioblasts at or near the site of their origin are the two distinct steps during the onset of vascularization that are defined as vasculogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase flk-1 represent a paracrine signaling system crucial for the differentiation of endothelial cells and the development of the vascular system. Specified cell adhesion molecules such as VE-cadherin and PECAM-1 (CD-31), and transcription factors such as ets-1, as well as mechanical forces and vascular regression and remodeling are involved in the subsequent events of endothelial cell differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.
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              Migration of human monocytes in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is mediated via the VEGF receptor flt-1.

              Treatment of human monocytes with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isolated from tumor cell supernatants was reported to induce monocyte activation and migration. In this study we show that recombinant human VEGF165, and VEGF121 had a maximal effect on human monocyte migration at 65 to 250 pmol/L. Chemotactic activity of VEGF165 was inhibited by a specific antiserum against VEGF, by heat treatment of VEGF165, and by protein kinase inhibitors. In addition, we could show that VEGF-stimulated monocyte migration is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein. Placenta growth factor (PlGF152), a heparin-binding growth factor related to VEGF, was also chemotactic for monocytes at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 pmol/L. In accordance with these findings, human monocytes showed specific and saturable binding for 125I-VEGF165 (half-maximal binding at 1 to 1.5 nmol/L). Using Northern blot analysis, we further could show that human monocytes express only the gene for the VEGF receptor type, flt-1, but not for the second known VEGF receptor, KDR. Resting monocytes expressed low levels of flt-1 gene only. Brief exposure (2 to 4 hours) of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharide, a prototypic monocyte activator, led to a significant upregulation of the flt-1 mRNA level. The results presented here suggest that monocyte chemotaxis in response to VEGF and most likely to PlGF152 is mediated by flt-1 and thus show a possible function for the VEGF-receptor flt-1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Medicine
                Nat Med
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                February 1997
                February 1997
                : 3
                : 2
                : 158-164
                Article
                10.1038/nm0297-158
                9018233
                © 1997

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