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      Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of cognitive and psychiatric disorders in patients with COPD

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          Abstract

          COPD is highly prevalent and associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinicians have long been aware that patients with COPD have problems with cognition and are susceptible to mood (depression) and anxiety disorders. With the increasing awareness of COPD as a multisystem disorder, many studies have evaluated the prevalence of neuropsychiatric conditions in patients with COPD. This review presents evidence regarding the prevalence of neuropsychiatric conditions (cognitive disorders/impairment, depression/anxiety) in COPD, their risk factors, and their impact on relevant outcomes. It also discusses both assessment and treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and makes recommendations for improved screening and treatment. The findings suggest that clinicians caring for patients with COPD must become familiar with diagnosing these comorbid conditions and that future treatment has the potential to impact these patients and thereby improve COPD outcomes.

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          Most cited references 111

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          Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.
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            Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care. The PRIME-MD 1000 study.

             Kyu Hahn,  F deGruy,  M Linzer (1994)
            To assess the validity and utility of PRIME-MD (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders), a new rapid procedure for diagnosing mental disorders by primary care physicians. Survey; criterion standard. Four primary care clinics. A total of 1000 adult patients (369 selected by convenience and 631 selected by site-specific methods to avoid sampling bias) assessed by 31 primary care physicians. PRIME-MD diagnoses, independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals, functional status measures (Short-Form General Health Survey), disability days, health care utilization, and treatment/referral decisions. Twenty-six percent of the patients had a PRIME-MD diagnosis that met full criteria for a specific disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition. The average time required of the primary care physician to complete the PRIME-MD evaluation was 8.4 minutes. There was good agreement between PRIME-MD diagnoses and those of independent mental health professionals (for the diagnosis of any PRIME-MD disorder, kappa = 0.71; overall accuracy rate = 88%). Patients with PRIME-MD diagnoses had lower functioning, more disability days, and higher rates of health care utilization than did patients without PRIME-MD diagnoses (for all measures, P < .005). Nearly half (48%) of 287 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were somewhat or fairly well-known to their physicians had not been recognized to have that diagnosis before the PRIME-MD evaluation. A new treatment or referral was initiated for 62% of the 125 patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who were not already being treated. PRIME-MD appears to be a useful tool for identifying mental disorders in primary care practice and research.
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              How stress influences the immune response.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                16 February 2017
                : 12
                : 639-650
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA
                [2 ]Montreal Behavioral Medicine Center (MBMC), Research Center, Integrated University Health and Social Services Center – Sacred Heart Hospital of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kim L Lavoie, Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Montréal Behavioral Médicine Center (MBMC), Research Center, Centre intégré universitaire de santé et services sociaux de Nord de l’Ile – Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 5400 Gouin Blvd W, J-3140, Montreal, QC, Canada H4J 1C5, Email kiml_lavoie@ 123456yahoo.ca
                Article
                copd-12-639
                10.2147/COPD.S123994
                5317263
                © 2017 Ouellette and Lavoie. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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