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      Distribución geoespacial y detección del virus del dengue en mosquitos Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México Translated title: Geospatial distribution and detection of dengue virus in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquitos in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico

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          OBJETIVO: Determinar la distribución de Aedes aegypti en Ciudad Juárez, México, y evaluarlo como portador del virus del dengue. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se colectaron mosquitos empleando minitrampas CDC. Se aplicaron técnicas geoespaciales del vecino más próximo y función K. Para evaluar la asociación entre la presencia del vector y variables sociodemográficas se aplicó la prueba de ji². Las pruebas de infección fueron mediante RT-PCR. RESULTADOS: Se capturaron 122 mosquitos hembra. Se demostró la tendencia de distribución en conglomerado (R=-1.2995 p=0.05) del mosquito a los 4000 m pero ninguna de las variables sociodemográficas mostró asociación significativa. Siete lotes evaluados fueron positivos para DEN-2, diez para DEN-3 y siete para ambos serotipos. CONCLUSIONES: Es el primer reporte de la presencia de mosquitos Aedes aegypti infectados con dengue en la región, lo que permitirá promover su vigilancia con el fin de disminuir la probabilidad de ocurrencia de la enfermedad entre la población fronteriza.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To determine the distribution of Aedes aegypti in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico and evaluate it as a carrier of the dengue virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected using CDC minitraps. Nearest neighbor and K-function were used as geospatial tools. The chi-square test was utilized to evaluate the association between the presence of the vector and sociodemographic variables. Evidence of infection was detected by RT-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 122 female mosquitoes were captured. A tendency in the cluster distribution (R= -1.2995, p= 0.05) of the mosquito was shown up to 4000 m but none of the sociodemographic variables showed significant associations. Seven of the pools tested were positive for DEN-2, ten were positive for DEN- 3, and seven for both serotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on the presence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with dengue in the region, which will enable the promotion of monitoring in order to reduce the probability of occurrence of the disease among the border population.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever.

          The incidence and geographical distribution of dengue have greatly increased in recent years. Dengue is an acute mosquito-transmitted viral disease characterised by fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, rash, nausea, and vomiting. Some infections result in dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a syndrome that in its most severe form can threaten the patient's life, primarily through increased vascular permeability and shock. The case fatality rate in patients with dengue shock syndrome can be as high as 44%. For decades, two distinct hypotheses to explain the mechanism of DHF have been debated-secondary infection or viral virulence. However, a combination of both now seems to be the plausible explanation. The geographical expansion of DHF presents the need for well-documented clinical, epidemiological, and virological descriptions of the syndrome in the Americas. Biological and social research are essential to develop effective mosquito control, medications to reduce capillary leakage, and a safe tetravalent vaccine.
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            Dengue virus type 2: replication and tropisms in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

            Background To be transmitted by its mosquito vector, dengue virus (DENV) must infect midgut epithelial cells, replicate and disseminate into the hemocoel, and finally infect the salivary glands, which is essential for transmission. The extrinsic incubation period (EIP) is very relevant epidemiologically and is the time required from the ingestion of virus until it can be transmitted to the next vertebrate host. The EIP is conditioned by the kinetics and tropisms of virus replication in its vector. Here we document the virogenesis of DENV-2 in newly-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Chetumal, Mexico in order to understand better the effect of vector-virus interactions on dengue transmission. Results After ingestion of DENV-2, midgut infections in Chetumal mosquitoes were characterized by a peak in virus titers between 7 and 10 days post-infection (dpi). The amount of viral antigen and viral titers in the midgut then declined, but viral RNA levels remained stable. The presence of DENV-2 antigen in the trachea was positively correlated with virus dissemination from the midgut. DENV-2 antigen was found in salivary gland tissue in more than a third of mosquitoes at 4 dpi. Unlike in the midgut, the amount of viral antigen (as well as the percent of infected salivary glands) increased with time. DENV-2 antigen also accumulated and increased in neural tissue throughout the EIP. DENV-2 antigen was detected in multiple tissues of the vector, but unlike some other arboviruses, was not detected in muscle. Conclusion Our results suggest that the EIP of DENV-2 in its vector may be shorter that the previously reported and that the tracheal system may facilitate DENV-2 dissemination from the midgut. Mosquito organs (e.g. midgut, neural tissue, and salivary glands) differed in their response to DENV-2 infection.
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              Dengue hemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment prevention and control


                Author and article information

                Salud Pública de México
                Salud pública Méx
                Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico )
                April 2010
                : 52
                : 2
                : 127-133
                Cd. Juárez Chihuahua orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez orgdiv1Unidad de Cartografía Digital México
                Cd. Juárez Chihuahua orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez orgdiv1Laboratorio de Biotecnología México
                S0036-36342010000200004 S0036-3634(10)05200204

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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