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Understanding the Dynamics of T-Cell Activation in Health and Disease Through the Lens of Computational Modeling

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      Kinetic proofreading: a new mechanism for reducing errors in biosynthetic processes requiring high specificity.

       John Hopfield (1974)
      The specificity with which the genetic code is read in protein synthesis, and with which other highly specific biosynthetic reactions take place, can be increased above the level available from free energy differences in intermediates or kinetic barriers by a process defined here as kinetic proofreading. A simple kinetic pathway is described which results in this proofreading when the reaction is strongly but nonspecifically driven, e.g., by phosphate hydrolysis. Protein synthesis, amino acid recognition, and DNA replication, all exhibit the features of this model. In each case, known reactions which otherwise appear to be useless or deleterious complications are seen to be essential to the proofreading function.
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        The basic principles of chimeric antigen receptor design.

        Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are recombinant receptors that provide both antigen-binding and T-cell-activating functions. A multitude of CARs has been reported over the past decade, targeting an array of cell surface tumor antigens. Their biologic functions have dramatically changed following the introduction of tripartite receptors comprising a costimulatory domain, termed second-generation CARs. These have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-targeted autologous T cells. CARs may be combined with costimulatory ligands, chimeric costimulatory receptors, or cytokines to further enhance T-cell potency, specificity, and safety. CARs represent a new class of drugs with exciting potential for cancer immunotherapy. CARs are a new class of drugs with great potential for cancer immunotherapy. Upon their expression in T lymphocytes, CARs direct potent, targeted immune responses that have recently shown encouraging clinical outcomes in a subset of patients with B-cell malignancies. This review focuses on the design of CARs, including the requirements for optimal antigen recognition and different modalities to provide costimulatory support to targeted T cells, which include the use of second- and third generation CARs, costimulatory ligands, chimeric costimulatory receptors, and cytokines. ©2013 AACR.
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          Serial triggering of many T-cell receptors by a few peptide-MHC complexes.

          T lymphocytes can recognize and be activated by a very small number of complexes of peptide with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules displayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The interaction between the T-cell receptor (TCR) and its ligand has low affinity and high off-rate. Both findings suggest that an extremely small number of TCRs must be engaged in interaction with APCs and raise the question of how so few receptors can transduce an activation signal. Here we show that a small number of peptide-MHC complexes can achieve a high TCR occupancy, because a single complex can serially engage and trigger up to approximately 200 TCRs. Furthermore, TCR occupancy is proportional to the T cell's biological response. Our findings suggest that the low affinity of the TCR can be instrumental in enabling a small number of antigenic complexes to be detected.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]1University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA
            Journal
            JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
            JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
            American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
            2473-4276
            2473-4276
            January 2019
            January 2019
            : 3
            : 1-8
            10.1200/CCI.18.00057
            © 2019
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