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      Characterization of Different Capsicum Varieties by Evaluation of Their Capsaicinoids Content by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Determination of Pungency and Effect of High Temperature

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          Abstract

          The chili pepper is a very important plant used worldwide as a vegetable, as a spice, and as an external medicine. In this work, eight different varieties of Capsicum annuum L. have been characterized by their capsaicinoids content. The chili pepper fruits were cultivated in the Comarca Lagunera region in North of Mexico. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the major and minor capsaicinoids; alkaloids responsible for the pungency level, has been performed by a validated chromatographic procedure (HPLC-DAD) after a preliminary drying step and an opportune extraction procedure. Concentrations of total capsaicinoids varied from a not detectable value for Bell pepper to 31.84 mg g −1 dried weight for Chiltepín. Samples were obtained from plants grown in experimental field and in greenhouse without temperature control, in order to evaluate temperature effect. Analysis of the two principal capsaicinoids in fruits showed that the amount of dihydrocapsaicin was always higher than capsaicin. In addition, our results showed that the content of total capsaicinoids for the varieties Serrano, Puya, Ancho, Guajillo and Bell pepper were increased with high temperature, while the content of total capsaicinoids and Scoville heat units (SHU) for the varieties De árbol and Jalapeño decreased. However, the pungency values found in this study were higher for all varieties analyzed than in other studies.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination.

           Ron Mittler (2005)
          Farmers and breeders have long known that often it is the simultaneous occurrence of several abiotic stresses, rather than a particular stress condition, that is most lethal to crops. Surprisingly, the co-occurrence of different stresses is rarely addressed by molecular biologists that study plant acclimation. Recent studies have revealed that the response of plants to a combination of two different abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from the response of plants to each of the different stresses applied individually. Tolerance to a combination of different stress conditions, particularly those that mimic the field environment, should be the focus of future research programs aimed at developing transgenic crops and plants with enhanced tolerance to naturally occurring environmental conditions.
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            Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells.

            Capsaicin is the major pungent ingredient in red peppers. Here, we report that it has a profound antiproliferative effect on prostate cancer cells, inducing the apoptosis of both androgen receptor (AR)-positive (LNCaP) and -negative (PC-3, DU-145) prostate cancer cell lines associated with an increase of p53, p21, and Bax. Capsaicin down-regulated the expression of not only prostate-specific antigen (PSA) but also AR. Promoter assays showed that capsaicin inhibited the ability of dihydrotestosterone to activate the PSA promoter/enhancer even in the presence of exogenous AR in LNCaP cells, suggesting that capsaicin inhibited the transcription of PSA not only via down-regulation of expression of AR, but also by a direct inhibitory effect on PSA transcription. Capsaicin inhibited NF-kappa activation by preventing its nuclear migration. In further studies, capsaicin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-stimulated degradation of IkappaBalpha in PC-3 cells, which was associated with the inhibition of proteasome activity. Taken together, capsaicin inhibits proteasome activity which suppressed the degradation of IkappaBalpha, preventing the activation of NF-kappaB. Capsaicin, when given orally, significantly slowed the growth of PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts as measured by size [75 +/- 35 versus 336 +/- 123 mm(3) (+/-SD); P = 0.017] and weight [203 +/- 41 versus 373 +/- 52 mg (+/-SD); P = 0.0006; capsaicin-treated versus vehicle-treated mice, respectively]. In summary, our data suggests that capsaicin, or a related analogue, may have a role in the management of prostate cancer.
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              Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences.

              The spice Capsicum is the fruit of the cultivated species of the genus Capsicum (family, Solanaceae), C. annuum principally, and C. frutescens L. to a lesser extent. A third variety of C. annuum var. annuum fruits, the large-sized, fleshy bell capsicum is used as a fresh vegetable and valued for its aroma, color, and crisp texture, but with no pungency. This variety is not considered in this series of reviews covering primary processing, production, international trade, chemistry, and biochemistry of functional components--the red keto carotenoids, the aromatic volatiles and the pungent capsaicinoids in Parts I to III. The valid qualitative aspects correlating the specific components of capsicum and their sensory responses are critically covered in Part IV. In this the concluding part of the series of reviews, the significant preference of the spice for initially evoking an aversive response, its potent physiological and pharmacological effects, and the aspects of structure-activity relationships of the pungent stimuli of the capsaicinoids are reviewed. The beneficial effects particularly associated with long usage by some ethnic groups and its safe consumption levels, with a critical review of the studies on the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, the sensory system, thermoregulation, nutritional impacts, and an overview of the five series is also detailed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                31 October 2013
                November 2013
                : 18
                : 11
                : 13471-13486
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Facultad de Agricultura y Zootecnia, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Km 35 Carretera Gómez Palacio-Tlahualilo, Ejido Venecia, CP 35111, Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico; E-Mails: agzfc@ 123456ujed.mx (A.G.-Z.); lupe_lunao@ 123456yahoo.com.mx (J.G.L.-O.)
                [2 ]Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Av. Universidad SN, Fracc, Filadelfia, CP 35010, Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico
                [3 ]Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Av. Artículo 123 SN, Fracc, Filadelfia, CP 35010, Gómez Palacio, Durango, Mexico; E-Mails: ericksier@ 123456gmail.com (E.S.-C.); rebecapms@ 123456ujed.mx (R.P.-M.)
                [4 ]Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Km 14.5 Carretera San Luis Potosí-Matehuala, Ejido Palma de la Cruz, CP 78321, Soledad de Graciano Sánchez, San Luis Potosí, Mexico; E-Mail: jcrodort@ 123456hotmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: luis_garher@ 123456hotmail.com ; Tel.: +52-871-711-8876; Fax: +52-871-711-8918.
                Article
                molecules-18-13471
                10.3390/molecules181113471
                6269802
                24184818
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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