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      Morphology and life cycle of a new species of Psilocladus Blanchard, 1846 (Coleoptera, Lampyridae, Psilocladinae), the first known bromeliad-inhabiting firefly


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          Abstract Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) are soft-bodied beetles usually associated with mesic and hydric habitats. As such, terrestrial firefly larvae are commonly found in marshy environments and stream banks, while aquatic larvae might dwell in ponds, streams, mangroves, and even brackish water. Larval biology is especially important in fireflies, as the majority of species are extremely semelparous - that is, adults rely on resources gathered during larval stages. Despite their crucial relevance in firefly biology, larvae of only near 1% firefly species have been studied, and the majority of species remain known only from adult stages. That is especially true in the Neotropical region, where they are most diverse. Here, we describe Psilocladus costae sp. nov. after the study of adults and immature stages, the latter reported for the first time for the monotypic subfamily Psilocladinae McDermott, 1964. Interestingly, adults were first obtained by rearing the larvae, the former usually fly fairly high (ca. 10 m) and are therefore seldom collected at ground level by conventional methods (e.g., active search, Malaise traps). The new species is found in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, inhabiting canopy bromeliads, an unprecedented habit for fireflies.

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          Carnivory in the Bromeliad Brocchinia reducta, with a Cost/Benefit Model for the General Restriction of Carnivorous Plants to Sunny, Moist, Nutrient-Poor Habitats

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            Multiple ancient origins of neoteny in Lycidae(Coleoptera): consequences for ecology and macroevolution.

            Neoteny, the maintenance of larval features in sexually mature adults, is a radical way of generating evolutionary novelty through shifts in relative timing of developmental programmes. While controlled by the environment in facultative neotenics, retention of larval features is obligatory in many species of Lycidae (net-winged beetles). They are studied here as an example of how developmental shifts and ecology interact to produce macroevolutionary impacts. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of Lycidae based on DNA sequences from nuclear (18S and 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial (rrnL, cox1, cob and nad5) genes from a representative set of lineages (73 species), including 17 neotenic taxa. Major changes of basal relationships compared with those implied in the current classification generally supported three independent origins of neotenics in Lycidae. The southeast Asian Lyropaeinae and Ateliinae were in basal positions indicating evolutionary antiquity, also confirmed by molecular clock estimates, unlike the neotropical leptolycines nested within Calopterini and presumably much younger. neotenics exhibit typical K-selected traits including slow development, large body size, high investment in offspring and low dispersal. This correlated with low species richness and restricted ranges of neotenic lineages compared with their sisters. Yet, these factors did not impede the evolutionary persistence of affected lineages, even without reversals to fully metamorphosed forms, contradicting earlier suggestions of recent evolution from dispersive non-neotenics.
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              Higher-Level Phylogeny and Reclassification of Lampyridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea)

              Fireflies (Lampyridae Rafinesque) are a diverse family of beetles which exhibit an array of morphologies including varying antennal and photic organ features. Due in part to their morphological diversity, the classification within the Lampyridae has long been in flux. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment approach to reconstruct the most extensive molecular phylogeny of Lampyridae to date (436 loci and 98 taxa) and use this phylogeny to evaluate the higher-level classification of the group. None of the currently recognized subfamilies were recovered as monophyletic with high support. We propose several classification changes supported by both phylogenetic and morphological evidence: 1) Pollaclasis Newman, Vestini McDermott (incl. Vesta Laporte, Dodacles Olivier, Dryptelytra Laporte, and Ledocas Olivier), Photoctus McDermott, and Araucariocladus Silveira & Mermudes are transferred to Lampyridae incertae sedis, 2) Psilocladinae Mcdermott, 1964status novum is reestablished for the genus Psilocladus Blanchard, 3) Lamprohizini Kazantsev, 2010 is elevated to Lamprohizinae Kazantsev, 2010status novum and Phausis LeConte is transferred to Lamprohizinae, 4) Memoan Silveira and Mermudes is transferred to Amydetinae Olivier, and 5) Scissicauda McDermott is transferred to Lampyrinae Rafinesque.

                Author and article information

                Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia
                Pap. Avulsos Zool.
                Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                : 60
                : spe
                : e202060(s.i.).24
                [2] Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Instituto de Biologia orgdiv2Departamento de Ecologia Brazil
                [3] Cullowhee North Carolina orgnameWestern Carolina University orgdiv1Dept. of Biology United States silveira.lfl@ 123456gmail.com
                [4] Itajubá Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Itajubá orgdiv1Instituto de Recursos Naturais Brazil simonepolicena@ 123456unifei.edu.br
                [1] Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Instituto de Biologia orgdiv2Departamento de Zoologia Brazil anievaz@ 123456gmail.com
                S0031-10492020000200224 S0031-1049(20)06000000224

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 07 February 2020
                : 31 October 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 0

                SciELO Brazil


                Bromeliad,Neotropical,Fireflies,Immature beetles,Psilocladinae


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