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      The Inhibitory Effect of Somatostatin Receptor Activation on Bee Venom-Evoked Nociceptive Behavior and pCREB Expression in Rats

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          The present study examined nociceptive behaviors and the expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) evoked by bee venom (BV). The effect of intraplantar preapplication of the somatostatin analog octreotide on nociceptive behaviors and pCREB expression was also examined. Subcutaneous injection of BV into the rat unilateral hindpaw pad induced significant spontaneous nociceptive behaviors, primary mechanical allodynia, primary thermal hyperalgesia, and mirror-thermal hyperalgesia, as well as an increase in pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Octreotide pretreatment significantly attenuated the BV-induced lifting/licking response and mechanical allodynia. Local injection of octreotide also significantly reduced pCREB expression in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Furthermore, pretreatment with cyclosomatostatin, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, reversed the octreotide-induced inhibition of the lifting/licking response, mechanical allodynia, and the expression of pCREB. These results suggest that BV can induce nociceptive responses and somatostatin receptors are involved in mediating the antinociception, which provides new evidence for peripheral analgesic action of somatostatin in an inflammatory pain state.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Impaired nociception and pain sensation in mice lacking the capsaicin receptor.

          The capsaicin (vanilloid) receptor VR1 is a cation channel expressed by primary sensory neurons of the "pain" pathway. Heterologously expressed VR1 can be activated by vanilloid compounds, protons, or heat (>43 degrees C), but whether this channel contributes to chemical or thermal sensitivity in vivo is not known. Here, we demonstrate that sensory neurons from mice lacking VR1 are severely deficient in their responses to each of these noxious stimuli. VR1-/- mice showed normal responses to noxious mechanical stimuli but exhibited no vanilloid-evoked pain behavior, were impaired in the detection of painful heat, and showed little thermal hypersensitivity in the setting of inflammation. Thus, VR1 is essential for selective modalities of pain sensation and for tissue injury-induced thermal hyperalgesia.
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            Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures.

             L Raine,  Ted Hsu,  H Fanger (1981)
            The use of avidin-biotin interaction in immunoenzymatic techniques provides a simple and sensitive method to localize antigens in formalin-fixed tissues. Among the several staining procedures available, the ABC method, which involves an application of biotin-labeled secondary antibody followed by the addition of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex, gives a superior result when compared to the unlabeled antibody method. The availability of biotin-binding sites in the complex is created by the incubation of a relative excess of avidin with biotin-labeled peroxidase. During formation of the complex, avidin acts as a bridge between biotin-labeled peroxidase molecules; and biotin-labeled peroxidase molecules, which contains several biotin moieties, serve as a link between the avidin molecules. Consequently, a "lattice" complex containing several peroxidase molecules is likely formed. Binding of this complex to the biotin moieties associated with secondary antibody results in a high staining intensity.
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              Somatostatin and its receptor family.

               Chirayu Patel (1999)
              Somatostatin (SST), a regulatory peptide, is produced by neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and immune cells in response to ions, nutrients, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, thyroid and steroid hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. The peptide is released in large amounts from storage pools of secretory cells, or in small amounts from activated immune and inflammatory cells, and acts as an endogenous inhibitory regulator of the secretory and proliferative responses of target cells that are widely distributed in the brain and periphery. These actions are mediated by a family of seven transmembrane (TM) domain G-protein-coupled receptors that comprise five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) that are endoded by separate genes segregated on different chromosomes. The five receptor subtypes bind the natural SST peptides, SST-14 and SST-28, with low nanomolar affinity. Short synthetic octapeptide and hexapeptide analogs bind well to only three of the subtypes, 2, 3, and 5. Selective nonpeptide agonists with nanomolar affinity have been developed for four of the subtypes (SSTR1, 2, 3, and 4) and putative peptide antagonists for SSTR2 and SSTR5 have been identified. The ligand binding domain for SST ligands is made up of residues in TMs III-VII with a potential contribution by the second extracellular loop. SSTRs are widely expressed in many tissues, frequently as multiple subtypes that coexist in the same cell. The five receptors share common signaling pathways such as the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, activation of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTP), and modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) through G-protein-dependent mechanisms. Some of the subtypes are also coupled to inward rectifying K(+) channels (SSTR2, 3, 4, 5), to voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (SSTR1, 2), a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (SSTR1), AMPA/kainate glutamate channels (SSTR1, 2), phospholipase C (SSTR2, 5), and phospholipase A(2) (SSTR4). SSTRs block cell secretion by inhibiting intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) and by a receptor-linked distal effect on exocytosis. Four of the receptors (SSTR1, 2, 4, and 5) induce cell cycle arrest via PTP-dependent modulation of MAPK, associated with induction of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein and p21. In contrast, SSTR3 uniquely triggers PTP-dependent apoptosis accompanied by activation of p53 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5 display acute desensitization of adenylyl cyclase coupling. Four of the subtypes (SSTR2, 3, 4, and 5) undergo rapid agonist-dependent endocytosis. SSTR1 fails to be internalized but is instead upregulated at the membrane in response to continued agonist exposure. Among the wide spectrum of SST effects, several biological responses have been identified that display absolute or relative subtype selectivity. These include GH secretion (SSTR2 and 5), insulin secretion (SSTR5), glucagon secretion (SSTR2), and immune responses (SSTR2). Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                7 May 2014
                : 2014
                1Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China
                2Medical Scientific Research Centre, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China
                3Department of Neural and Pain Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Livio Luongo

                Copyright © 2014 Li Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809 National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81160141
                Funded by: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809 National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 81200604
                Funded by: Guangxi Natural Science foundation in China
                Award ID: 2012GXNSFBA053116
                Funded by: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002858 China Postdoctoral Science Foundation
                Award ID: 2013M542120
                Research Article


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