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Supraferromagnetic correlations in clusters of magnetic nanoflowers

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      Abstract

      Magnetic nanoflowers are densely packed aggregates of superferromagnetically coupled iron oxide nanocrystallites, which excel during magnetic hyperthermia experiments. Here, we investigate the nature of the moment coupling within a powder of such nanoflowers using spin-resolved small-angle neutron scattering. Within the powder the nanoparticles are agglomerated to clusters, and we can show that the moments of neighboring nanoflowers tend to align parallel to each other. Thus, the whole system resembles a hierarchical magnetic nanostructure consisting of three distinct levels, i.e. (i) the ferrimagnetic nanocrystallites as building blocks, (ii) the superferromagnetic nanoflowers, and (iii) the \textit{supra}ferromagnetic clusters of nanoflowers. We surmise that such a supraferromagnetic coupling explains the enhanced magnetic hyperthermia performance in case of interacting nanoflowers.

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      Most cited references 21

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      Magnetic hyperthermia efficiency in the cellular environment for different nanoparticle designs.

      Magnetic hyperthermia mediated by magnetic nanomaterials is one promising antitumoral nanotherapy, particularly for its ability to remotely destroy deep tumors. More and more new nanomaterials are being developed for this purpose, with improved heat-generating properties in solution. However, although the ultimate target of these treatments is the tumor cell, the heating efficiency, and the underlying mechanisms, are rarely studied in the cellular environment. Here we attempt to fill this gap by making systematic measurements of both hyperthermia and magnetism in controlled cell environments, using a wide range of nanomaterials. In particular, we report a systematic fall in the heating efficiency for nanomaterials associated with tumour cells. Real-time measurements showed that this loss of heat-generating power occurred very rapidly, within a matter of minutes. The fall in heating correlated with the magnetic characterization of the samples, demonstrating a complete inhibition of the Brownian relaxation in cellular conditions.
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        Cooperative organization in iron oxide multi-core nanoparticles potentiates their efficiency as heating mediators and MRI contrast agents.

        In the pursuit of optimized magnetic nanostructures for diagnostic and therapeutic applications, the role of nanoparticle architecture has been poorly investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that the internal collective organization of multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles can modulate their magnetic properties in such a way as to critically enhance their hyperthermic efficiency and their MRI T(1) and T(2) contrast effect. Multi-core nanoparticles composed of maghemite cores were synthesized through a polyol approach, and subsequent electrostatic colloidal sorting was used to fractionate the suspensions by size and hence magnetic properties. We obtained stable suspensions of citrate-stabilized nanostructures ranging from single-core 10 nm nanoparticles to multi-core magnetically cooperative 30 nm nanoparticles. Three-dimensional oriented attachment of primary cores results in enhanced magnetic susceptibility and decreased surface disorder compared to individual cores, while preserving a superparamagnetic-like behavior of the multi-core structures and potentiating thermal losses. Exchange coupling in the multi-core nanoparticles modifies the dynamics of the magnetic moment in such a way that both the longitudinal and transverse NMR relaxivities are also enhanced. Long-term MRI detection of tumor cells and their efficient destruction by magnetic hyperthermia can be achieved thanks to a facile and nontoxic cell uptake of these iron oxide nanostructures. This study proves for the first time that cooperative magnetic behavior within highly crystalline iron oxide superparamagnetic multi-core nanoparticles can improve simultaneously therapeutic and diagnosis effectiveness over existing nanostructures, while preserving biocompatibility.
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          Small Angle X-ray Scattering for Nanoparticle Research.

          X-ray scattering is a structural characterization tool that has impacted diverse fields of study. It is unique in its ability to examine materials in real time and under realistic sample environments, enabling researchers to understand morphology at nanometer and angstrom length scales using complementary small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS), respectively. Herein, we focus on the use of SAXS to examine nanoscale particulate systems. We provide a theoretical foundation for X-ray scattering, considering both form factor and structure factor, as well as the use of correlation functions, which may be used to determine a particle's size, size distribution, shape, and organization into hierarchical structures. The theory is expanded upon with contemporary use cases. Both transmission and reflection (grazing incidence) geometries are addressed, as well as the combination of SAXS with other X-ray and non-X-ray characterization tools. We conclude with an examination of several key areas of research where X-ray scattering has played a pivotal role, including in situ nanoparticle synthesis, nanoparticle assembly, and operando studies of catalysts and energy storage materials. Throughout this review we highlight the unique capabilities of X-ray scattering for structural characterization of materials in their native environment.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            05 July 2019
            1907.02752

            http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

            Custom metadata
            11 pages, 2 figures
            cond-mat.mes-hall

            Nanophysics

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