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      New Design Procedure of Transtibial ProsthesisBed Stump Using Topological Optimization Method

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      Symmetry
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          This paper presents a new design procedure for production of a transtibial prosthesis bed stump by three-dimensional (3D) printing with topological optimization. The suggested procedure combines the medical perspective with finite element analysis and facilitates regaining the symmetry in patients with transtibial prosthesis, which leads to life improvement. The particular focus of the study is the weight reduction of the lower part of the bed stump, while taking into account its stiffness and load-bearing capacity. The first part of the work deals with the analysis of the subject geometry of the bed stump, which is usually oversized in terms of the weight and stiffness that are necessary for the current application. In the second part, an analysis of walking biomechanics with a focus on the impact and rebound phases is presented. Based on the obtained information, a spatial model of the lower part of the bed stump is proposed in the third phase, in which the finite element method is described. In the fourth part, the topological optimization method is used for reducing the structure weight. In the last part, the results of the designed model are analyzed. Finally, the recommendations for the settings of the method are presented. The work is based on the practical industry requirements, and the obtained results will be reflected in the design of new types of transtibial prosthesis.

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          Mean Body Weight, Height, Waist Circumference, and Body Mass Index Among Adults: United States, 1999-2000 Through 2015-2016.

          Objectives-This report presents trends in mean weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI) among adults in the United States from 1999-2000 through 2015-2016. Methods-Data were obtained from physical examinations of a nationally representative sample of adults aged 20 and over in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys during 1999-2016. The tables present means and standard errors of the mean for weight (n = 45,047), height (n = 46,481), waist circumference (n = 43,169), and BMI (n = 44,859) separately for men and women overall, by age group, and by race and Hispanic origin for each 2-year survey period. Changes in these body measures over time were evaluated using linear regression. Results-Since 1999, mean weight, waist circumference, and BMI increased for all age groups, for non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American men and women, and for non-Hispanic black women. Among non-Hispanic black men, weight, waist circumference, and BMI increased until 2005-2006 and then remained level. No change in height was seen over time except for a decrease in crude estimates among all women, a decrease among men and women aged 40-59, and an increase in both crude and age-adjusted estimates of mean height for men followed by a decrease after 2003-2004. No significant trends were seen in any of the four body measures for non-Hispanic Asian men and women (data available only for 2011-2016).
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            Parametric Studies of Total Load-Bearing Capacity of Steel Arch Supports

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              Load-Bearing Capacity Modelling and Testing of Single-Stranded Wire Rope

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                SYMMAM
                Symmetry
                Symmetry
                MDPI AG
                2073-8994
                November 2020
                November 06 2020
                : 12
                : 11
                : 1837
                Article
                10.3390/sym12111837
                51afb79b-8ae7-4d7d-8d4a-f9067e404c05
                © 2020

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/2073-8994/12/11/1837

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