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      Associations Between Internet-Based Professional Social Networking and Emotional Distress

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          Professional social networking websites are commonly used among young professionals. In light of emerging concerns regarding social networking use and emotional distress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frequency of use of LinkedIn, the most commonly used professional social networking website, and depression and anxiety among young adults. In October 2014, we assessed a nationally representative sample of 1,780 U.S. young adults between the ages of 19–32 regarding frequency of LinkedIn use, depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic covariates. We measured depression and anxiety using validated Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures. We used bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between LinkedIn use and depression and anxiety, while controlling for age, sex, race, relationship status, living situation, household income, education level, and overall social media use. In weighted analyses, 72% of participants did not report use of LinkedIn, 16% reported at least some use, but less than once each week, and 12% reported use at least once per week. In multivariable analyses controlling for all covariates, compared with those who did not use LinkedIn, participants using LinkedIn at least once per week had significantly greater odds of increased depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31–3.38) and increased anxiety (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.72–4.53). LinkedIn use was significantly related to both outcomes in a dose–response manner. Future research should investigate directionality of this association and possible reasons for it.

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          Author and article information

          Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
          Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw
          Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
          Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. (140 Huguenot Street, 3rd FloorNew Rochelle, NY 10801USA )
          01 October 2016
          01 October 2016
          : 19
          : 10
          : 601-608
          [ 1 ]Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
          [ 2 ]Center for Research on Media, Technology, and Health, University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
          [ 3 ]Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
          [ 4 ]Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
          Author notes
          Address correspondence to: Dr. Brian A. Primack, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine 230 McKee Place, Suite 600, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, E-mail: bprimack@ 123456pitt.edu
          PMC5067824 PMC5067824 5067824 10.1089/cyber.2016.0134
          Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
          Page count
          Tables: 3, References: 41, Pages: 8
          Original Articles

          social media, networking, LinkedIn, anxiety, depression, Internet


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