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      Orographic Effects on Berry Morphology and Chemical Composition of Carignan and Grenache Noir Grapes


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          A variation in the climatic parameters of an orographic vineyard influences the growth and development of vines and grapes. Understanding the effects of this is highly beneficial in determining how viticulture practices can be modified to enhance grape quality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of in-row grape position, altitude and vigour on berry morphology and grape maturity. The effects of vigour, altitude and in-row grape position on berry weight and diameter, titratable acidity, pH and sugar concentration of Carignan and Grenache noir grapes grown in a vineyard located in Priorat were investigated in the 2021 vintage. The results show that Carignan grapes with a lower vigour demonstrated a higher sugar concentration, berry weight and diameter, as well as lower titratable acidity, while the Grenache noir grapes with a lower vigour achieved only a higher sugar concentration. The grapes at high altitude had a higher sugar concentration in Carignan and higher titratable acidity in Grenache noir. Outer-row grapes of Carignan were characterised by lower titratable acidity and a higher sugar concentration, berry weight and diameter, while the outer-row grapes of Grenache noir displayed lower berry diameter, and a higher pH and sugar concentration. Vigour and in-row grape position have stronger effects on berry morphology and chemical composition than altitude. Sugar concentration is more susceptible than other parameters to be influenced by variability in the vineyard conditions.

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          The concept of terroir in viticulture

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            Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

            The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.
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              Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

              Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

                Author and article information

                South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture
                S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic.
                Stellenbosch University (Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa )
                : 44
                : 2
                : 112-119
                [01] Tarragona Catalonia orgnameUniversitat Rovira i Virgili orgdiv1Facultat d'Enologia orgdiv2Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnología Spain
                [02] Tarragona orgnameUniversitat Rovira i Virgili orgdiv1Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, ETSEQ Spain
                S2224-79042023000200003 S2224-7904(23)04400200003

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : June 2023
                : February 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 8

                SciELO South Africa


                grape maturity,grape position,chemical composition,climate,vigour,orographic vineyard,berry morphology,Altitude


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