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      Innovation in Systems of Care in Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke. The Experience of the Catalan Stroke Programme

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          Abstract

          Stroke, and mainly ischemic stroke, is the second cause of death and disability. To confront the huge burden of this disease, innovative stroke systems of care are mandatory. This requires the development of national stroke plans to offer the best treatment to all patients eligible for reperfusion therapies. Key elements for success include a high level of organization, close cooperation with emergency medical services for prehospital assessment, an understanding of stroke singularity, the development of preassessment tools, a high level of commitment of all stroke teams at Stroke Centres, the availability of a disease-specific registry, and local government involvement to establish stroke care as a priority. In this mini review, we discuss recent evidence concerning different aspects of stroke systems of care and describe the success of the Catalan Stroke Programme as an example of innovation. In Catalonia, reperfusion treatment rates have increased in recent years and currently are among the highest in Europe (17.3% overall, 14.3% for IVT, and 6% for EVT in 2016).

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          Most cited references24

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          Global Burden of Stroke.

          On the basis of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2013 Study, this article provides an overview of the global, regional, and country-specific burden of stroke by sex and age groups, including trends in stroke burden from 1990 to 2013, and outlines recommended measures to reduce stroke burden. It shows that although stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years rates tend to decline from 1990 to 2013, the overall stroke burden in terms of absolute number of people affected by, or who remained disabled from, stroke has increased across the globe in both men and women of all ages. This provides a strong argument that "business as usual" for primary stroke prevention is not sufficiently effective. Although prevention of stroke is a complex medical and political issue, there is strong evidence that substantial prevention of stroke is feasible in practice. The need to scale-up the primary prevention actions is urgent.
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            Effects of Alteplase for Acute Stroke on the Distribution of Functional Outcomes: A Pooled Analysis of 9 Trials.

            Thrombolytic therapy with intravenous alteplase within 4.5 hours of ischemic stroke onset increases the overall likelihood of an excellent outcome (no, or nondisabling, symptoms). Any improvement in functional outcome distribution has value, and herein we provide an assessment of the effect of alteplase on the distribution of the functional level by treatment delay, age, and stroke severity.
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              A multicenter randomized controlled trial of endovascular therapy following imaging evaluation for ischemic stroke (DEFUSE 3).

              Rationale Early reperfusion in patients experiencing acute ischemic stroke is effective in patients with large vessel occlusion. No randomized data are available regarding the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy beyond 6 h from symptom onset. Aim The aim of the study is to demonstrate that, among patients with large vessel anterior circulation occlusion who have a favorable imaging profile on computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance imaging, endovascular therapy with a Food and Drug Administration 510 K-cleared mechanical thrombectomy device reduces the degree of disability three months post stroke. Design The study is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, phase III, adaptive, blinded endpoint, controlled trial. A maximum of 476 patients will be randomized and treated between 6 and 16 h of symptom onset. Procedures Patients undergo imaging with computed tomography perfusion or magnetic resonance diffusion/perfusion, and automated software (RAPID) determines if the Target Mismatch Profile is present. Patients who meet both clinical and imaging selection criteria are randomized 1:1 to endovascular therapy plus medical management or medical management alone. The individual endovascular therapist chooses the specific device (or devices) employed. Study outcomes The primary endpoint is the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin Scale at day 90. The secondary endpoint is the proportion of patients with modified Rankin Scale 0-2 at day 90 (indicating functional independence). Analysis Statistical analysis for the primary endpoint will be conducted using a normal approximation of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test (the generalized likelihood ratio test).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Neurol
                Front Neurol
                Front. Neurol.
                Frontiers in Neurology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-2295
                06 June 2018
                2018
                : 9
                : 427
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Stroke Programme, Catalan Stroke Foundation , Barcelona, Spain
                [2] 2Stroke Programme, Agency for Health Quality and Assessment of Catalonia, CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública , Barcelona, Spain
                [3] 3Stroke Programme , Barcelona, Spain
                [4] 4Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital Vall d'Hebron , Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Cristina Tassorelli, University of Pavia, Italy

                Reviewed by: Antonio Carolei, University of L'Aquila, Italy; Marcelo M. Valença, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil; Fabio Blandini, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Nazionale Casimiro Mondino (IRCCS), Italy

                *Correspondence: Rosa M. Vivanco-Hidalgo rvivanco_ext@ 123456gencat.cat

                This article was submitted to Headache Medicine and Facial Pain, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neurology

                Article
                10.3389/fneur.2018.00427
                5997815
                51be1ffc-c670-4609-bada-4f8de6ba9256
                Copyright © 2018 Vivanco-Hidalgo, Abilleira, Salvat-Plana, Ribera, Gallofré and Gallofré.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 30 December 2017
                : 22 May 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 6, Words: 4213
                Categories
                Neurology
                Mini Review

                Neurology
                stroke,systems of care,innovation,endovascular treatment of stroke,thrombolysis
                Neurology
                stroke, systems of care, innovation, endovascular treatment of stroke, thrombolysis

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