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      Risk Factors for Early Failure of Native Arteriovenous Fistulas

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Current guidelines recommend native arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) as the vascular access of choice for hemodialysis on account of the lower incidence of complications. However, this kind of vascular access has a high rate of early failure (early thrombosis or non-maturation). Our aim was to examine whether clear risk factors for early AVF failure could be identified in our patients. Subjects and Methods: Data of all patients who underwent creation of an AVF at the Geneva University Hospital from January 1998 to December 2002 were reviewed. Early failure was defined as a non-functioning fistula (thrombosis or absence of fistula maturation). Results: 119 patients underwent the creation of 148 native AVF, 88 (59.5%) in the forearm and 60 (40.5%) in the upper arm. 48 (32.4%) fistulae were created in diabetic patients. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, significant predictive factors of early failure were a distal location (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.21, 95% CI = 2.63–25.63, p < 0.001), female gender (aOR = 4.04, 95% CI = 1.44–11.30, p = 0.008), level of surgical expertise (aOR = 3.97, 95% CI = 1.39–11.32, p = 0.010) and diabetes mellitus (aOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.17–8.71, p = 0.024). Conclusion: Early failure of AVF occurs mainly in forearm sites among women and diabetic patients. Surgical expertise has also a significant influence. These results suggest that selection of a distal site for a native AVF has to be rigorously made for women and diabetic patients and that surgeon’s dedication is of primary importance to avoid early AVF failure occurrence.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Increasing arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients: problems and solutions.

          National guidelines promote increasing the prevalence of fistula use among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of fistulas among hemodialysis patients reflects both national, regional, and local practice differences as well as patient-specific demographic and clinical factors. Increasing fistula prevalence requires increasing fistula placement, improving maturation of new fistulas, and enhancing long-term patency of mature fistulas for dialysis. Whether a patient receives a fistula depends on several factors: timing of referral for dialysis and vascular access, type of fistula placed, patient demographics, preference of the nephrologist, surgeon, and dialysis nurses, and vascular anatomy of the patient. Whether the placed fistula is useable for dialysis depends on additional factors, including adequacy of vessels, surgeon's experience, patient demographics, nursing skills, minimal acceptable dialysis blood flow, and attempts to revise immature fistulas. Whether a mature fistula achieves long-term patency depends on the ability to prevent and correct thrombosis. An optimal outcome is likely when there is (1) a multidisciplinary team approach to vascular access; (2) consensus about the goals among all interested parties (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists, dialysis nurses, and patients); (3) early referral for placement of vascular access; (4) restriction of vascular access procedures to surgeons with demonstrable interest and experience; (5) routine, preoperative mapping of the patient's arteries and veins; (6) close, ongoing communication among the involved parties; and (7) prospective tracking of outcomes with continuous quality assessment. Implementing these measures is likely to increase the prevalence of fistulas in any given dialysis unit. However, differences among dialysis units are likely to persist because of differences in gender, race, and co-morbidity mix of the patient population.
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            Type of vascular access and mortality in U.S. hemodialysis patients.

            Vascular access (VA) complications account for 16 to 25% of hospital admissions. This study tested the hypothesis that the type of VA in use is correlated with overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. Data were analyzed from the U.S. Renal Data System Dialysis Morbidity and Mortality Study Wave 1, a random sample of 5507 patients, prevalent on hemodialysis as of December 31, 1993. The relative mortality risk during a two-year observation was analyzed by Cox-regression methods with adjustments for demographic and comorbid conditions. Using similar methods, cause-specific analyses also were performed for death caused by infection and cardiac causes. In diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with end-stage renal disease, the associated relative mortality risk was higher for those with arteriovenous graft (AVG; RR = 1.41, P < 0.003) and central venous catheter (CVC; RR = 1.54, P < 0.002) as compared with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). In non-DM patients, those with CVC had a higher associated mortality (RR = 1.70, P < 0.001), as did to a lesser degree those with AVG (RR = 1.08, P = 0.35) when compared with AVF. Cause-specific analyses found higher infection-related deaths for CVC (RR = 2.30, P < 0.06) and AVG (RR = 2.47, P < 0.02) compared with AVF in DM; in non-DM, risk was higher also for CVC (RR = 1.83, P < 0.04) and AVG (RR = 1.27, P < 0.33). In contrast to our hypothesis that AV shunting increases cardiac risk, deaths caused by cardiac causes were higher in CVC than AVF for both DM (RR = 1.47, P < 0.05) and non-DM (RR = 1.34, P < 0.05) patients. This case-mix adjusted analysis suggests that CVC and AVG are correlated with increased mortality risk when compared with AVF, both overall and by major causes of death.
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              Vascular access use in Europe and the United States: results from the DOPPS.

              A direct broad-based comparison of vascular access use and survival in Europe (EUR) and the United States (US) has not been performed previously. Case series reports suggest that vascular access practices differ substantially in the US and EUR. We report on a representative study (DOPPS) which has used the same data collection protocol for> 6400 hemodialysis (HD) patients to compare vascular access use at 145 US dialysis units and 101 units in five EUR countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). Logistic analysis evaluated factors associated with native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) versus graft use or permanent access versus catheter use for prevalent and incident HD patients. Times to failure for AVF and graft were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. AVF was used by 80% of EUR and 24% of US prevalent patients, and was significantly associated with younger age, male gender, lower body mass index, non-diabetic status, lack of peripheral vascular disease, and no angina. After adjusting for these factors, AVF versus graft use was still much higher in EUR than US (AOR=21, P 30 days prior to ESRD compared with 74% in the US (P < 0.0001); pre-ESRD care was associated with increased odds of AVF versus graft use (AOR=1.9, P=0.01). New HD patients had a 1.8-fold greater odds (P=0.002) of starting HD with a permanent access if a facility's typical time from referral to access placement was < or =2 weeks. AVF use when compared to grafts was substantially lower (AOR=0.61, P=0.04) when surgery trainees assisted or performed access placements. When used as a patient's first access, AVF survival was superior to grafts regarding time to first failure (RR=0.53, P=0.0002), and AVF survival was longer in EUR compared with the US (RR=0.49, P=0.0005). AVF and grafts each displayed better survival if used when initiating HD compared with being used after patients began dialysis with a catheter. Large differences in vascular access use exist between EUR and the US, even after adjustment for patient characteristics. The results strongly suggest that a facility's preferences and approaches to vascular access practice are major determinants of vascular access use.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2005
                September 2005
                11 May 2005
                : 101
                : 1
                : c39-c44
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aNephrology, bVisceral Surgery, cAngiology, and dCardio-vascular Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
                Article
                85710 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c39–c44
                10.1159/000085710
                15886495
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/85710
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                AVF, risk factors, Arteriovenous fistula, Early AVF failure

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