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      Intrastromal Antibiotic Injection in Polymicrobial Keratitis: Case Report and Literature Review

      case-report

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          Abstract

          Bacterial keratitis (corneal infection) caused by more than one organism is rare and exceedingly difficult to treat due to variable antibiotic susceptibilities. Intrastromal injections of antibiotics may be necessary to achieve higher drug concentrations at the site of infection, particularly in the case of deep stromal disease refractory to topical therapy. However, while this approach is increasingly used for fungal keratitis, there is a paucity of the literature regarding the use of intrastromal antibiotics bacterial keratitis. In the current case, an 86-year-old patient presented with a left corneal ulcer with corresponding microbiologic cultures positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Achromobacter species. The ulcer continued to progress despite maximal topical antibiotic treatment yet demonstrated marked improvement after two intrastromal injections of moxifloxacin administered 2 weeks apart. Polymicrobial keratitis can be particularly challenging to eradicate despite maximal topical antibiotic therapeutics. Intrastromal corneal injections provide a mechanism for drug delivery directly to the site of infection and thus may represent an important alternative in refractory cases.

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          Most cited references22

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          Bacterial keratitis: predisposing factors, clinical and microbiological review of 300 cases.

          To identify predisposing factors and to define clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacterial keratitis in current practice. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of patients presenting with bacterial keratitis and treated at the Quinze-Vingts National Center of Ophthalmology, Paris, France, was performed during a 20 month period. A bacterial keratitis was defined as a suppurative corneal infiltrate and overlying epithelial defect associated with presence of bacteria on corneal scraping and/or that was cured with antibiotic therapy. Risk factors, clinical and microbiological data were collected. 300 cases (291 patients) of presumed bacterial keratitis were included. Potential predisposing factors, usually multiple, were identified in 90.6% of cases. Contact lens wear was the main risk factor (50.3%). Trauma or a history of keratopathy was found in 15% and 21% of cases, respectively. An organism was identified in 201 eyes (68%). 83% of the infections involved Gram positive bacteria, 17% involved Gram negative bacteria, and 2% were polymicrobial. Gram negative bacteria were associated with severe anterior chamber inflammation (p=0.004), as well as greater surface of infiltrates (p=0.01). 99% of ulcers resolved with treatment, but only 60% of patients had visual acuity better than the level at admission, and 5% had very poor visual outcome. Contact lens wear is the most important risk factor. Most community acquired bacterial ulcers resolve with appropriate treatment.
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            Biofilms in Infections of the Eye

            The ability to form biofilms in a variety of environments is a common trait of bacteria, and may represent one of the earliest defenses against predation. Biofilms are multicellular communities usually held together by a polymeric matrix, ranging from capsular material to cell lysate. In a structure that imposes diffusion limits, environmental microgradients arise to which individual bacteria adapt their physiologies, resulting in the gamut of physiological diversity. Additionally, the proximity of cells within the biofilm creates the opportunity for coordinated behaviors through cell–cell communication using diffusible signals, the most well documented being quorum sensing. Biofilms form on abiotic or biotic surfaces, and because of that are associated with a large proportion of human infections. Biofilm formation imposes a limitation on the uses and design of ocular devices, such as intraocular lenses, posterior contact lenses, scleral buckles, conjunctival plugs, lacrimal intubation devices and orbital implants. In the absence of abiotic materials, biofilms have been observed on the capsule, and in the corneal stroma. As the evidence for the involvement of microbial biofilms in many ocular infections has become compelling, developing new strategies to prevent their formation or to eradicate them at the site of infection, has become a priority.
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              Evaluation of intrastromal injection of voriconazole as a therapeutic adjunctive for the management of deep recalcitrant fungal keratitis.

              To evaluate the role of intrastromal injection of voriconazole in the management of deep recalcitrant fungal keratitis. Interventional case series. Cornea services at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Three eyes of three patients with deep stromal recalcitrant fungal keratitis not responding to topical antifungal medications. Intervention Procedure: Voriconazole 50 micrograms/0.1 ml was injected circumferentially around the fungal abscess in the corneal stroma as an adjunctive to the topical antifungal therapy. Main outcome measure was a reduction in size of the abscess and resolution of the infection. Before the intracorneal injection, all three eyes had gradually worsening lesions on topical medications. After the intervention, a faster reduction in the size of corneal infiltration was documented and a complete resolution of the ulcers was seen within three weeks in all cases. Targeted delivery of voriconazole by intracorneal injection may be a safe and effective way to treat cases of deep-seated recalcitrant fungal keratitis responding poorly to conventional treatment modalities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2022
                May - August 2022
                14 July 2022
                : 13
                : 2
                : 550-555
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6661-8562
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2693-1394
                Article
                525156 PMC9386406 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2022;13:550–555
                10.1159/000525156
                PMC9386406
                36160482
                51cfd1c7-c7ce-4f09-bf5d-9df81b129b51
                © 2022 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                History
                : 10 March 2022
                : 12 May 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Pages: 6
                Funding
                Rachel A.F. Wozniak, MD, PhD, Clara M. Pak, Daniel E. Savage, MD, and Ronald Plotnik, MD, were supported in part by an unrestricted departmental grant from the Research to Prevent Blindness for data collection and research; Rachel A.F. Wozniak, MD, PhD, was also supported by a career development award from the Research to Prevent Blindness for data collection, research, and writing the manuscript and also NIH K08 EYE29012 for data collection, research, and writing the manuscript.
                Categories
                Case Report

                Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
                Intrastromal injections,Case report,Intrastromal antibiotics,Polymicrobial keratitis

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