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      Behavioral and psychosocial predictors of depression in Bangladeshi medical students: a cross-sectional study


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          Background: Depression, stress, and anxiety were found in a large number of medical undergraduate students, indicating a neglected aspect of their psychology that required immediate attention. The goal of this study was to find out the prevalence of depression among medical students, as well as potential psychosocial and behavioral predictors for depression.

          Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July to November 2021 among 840 randomly selected medical students from four medical colleges using stratified random sampling. Data were collected using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire and were analyzed through the SPSS v.23 software. Multiple regression was performed to assess the effect of several behavioral and psychosocial factors on depression.

          Results: Among the 840 study participants, 55.7% (n= 468) were female and 44.3% (n= 372) were male. According to the data, the prevalence of depression, anxiety, perceived stress among medical students was found to be 28.8%, 65% and 85% respectively. A strong link was found between depression and anxiety, stress, poor sleep quality, poor academic performance, and a negative social and romantic relationship status.

          Conclusions: A significant number of medical students are depressed. In order to prevent and treat depression, medical students should be screened for depression and its associated factors.

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          Most cited references87

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          A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7.

          Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders; however, there is no brief clinical measure for assessing GAD. The objective of this study was to develop a brief self-report scale to identify probable cases of GAD and evaluate its reliability and validity. A criterion-standard study was performed in 15 primary care clinics in the United States from November 2004 through June 2005. Of a total of 2740 adult patients completing a study questionnaire, 965 patients had a telephone interview with a mental health professional within 1 week. For criterion and construct validity, GAD self-report scale diagnoses were compared with independent diagnoses made by mental health professionals; functional status measures; disability days; and health care use. A 7-item anxiety scale (GAD-7) had good reliability, as well as criterion, construct, factorial, and procedural validity. A cut point was identified that optimized sensitivity (89%) and specificity (82%). Increasing scores on the scale were strongly associated with multiple domains of functional impairment (all 6 Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey scales and disability days). Although GAD and depression symptoms frequently co-occurred, factor analysis confirmed them as distinct dimensions. Moreover, GAD and depression symptoms had differing but independent effects on functional impairment and disability. There was good agreement between self-report and interviewer-administered versions of the scale. The GAD-7 is a valid and efficient tool for screening for GAD and assessing its severity in clinical practice and research.
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            The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

            Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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              An index of factorial simplicity


                Author and article information

                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data CurationRole: Formal AnalysisRole: MethodologyRole: ValidationRole: Writing – Original Draft Preparation
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – Original Draft Preparation
                Role: InvestigationRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Writing – Original Draft PreparationRole: Writing – Review & Editing
                F1000 Research Limited (London, UK )
                5 July 2022
                : 11
                : 745
                [1 ]Department of Community Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College (RMC), Rajshahi, 6000, Bangladesh
                [2 ]Department of Child Adolescent & Family Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Shyamoli, Dhaka, 1207, Bangladesh
                [3 ]Department of Gynae and obstetrics, Combined Military Hospital, Jalalabad, Sylhet Cantonment, Sylhet, 3107, Bangladesh
                [1 ]Public Health & Community Medicine, Faculty of medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt
                [1 ]Centre of Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada
                Author notes

                No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Competing interests: No competing interests were disclosed.

                Author information
                Copyright: © 2022 Karim MR et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 28 June 2022
                The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.
                Research Article

                depression,anxiety,perceived stress,sleep quality,facebook addiction


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