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Intensive treatment of dysarthria secondary to stroke

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Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

Informa UK Limited

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      Heart disease and stroke statistics--2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association.

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        Estimates of the prevalence of acute stroke impairments and disability in a multiethnic population.

        The goals of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of acute impairments and disability in a multiethnic population of first-ever stroke and to identify differences in impairment and early disability between pathological and Bamford subtypes. Associations between impairments and death and disability at 3 months were identified. Impairments that occur at the time of maximum neurological deficit were recorded, and disability according to the Barthel Index (BI) was assessed 1 week and 3 months after stroke in patients in the South London Stroke Register: Of 1259 registered patients, 6% had 1 or 2, 31.1% had 3 to 5, 50.6% had 6 to 10, and 10.6% had >10 impairments. Common impairments were weakness (upper limb, 77.4%), urinary incontinence (48.2%), impaired consciousness (44.7%), dysphagia (44.7%), and impaired cognition (43.9%). Patients with total anterior circulation infarcts had the highest age-adjusted prevalence of weakness, dysphagia, urinary incontinence, cognitive impairment, and disability. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage had the highest rates of coma. Patients with lacunar stroke had the high prevalence of weakness but were least affected by disability, incontinence, and cognitive dysfunction. Blacks had higher age- and sex-adjusted rates of disability in ischemic stroke (BI <20, odds ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.47 to 5.21, P=0.002; BI <15, odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.81, P=0.01) but impairment rates similar to those of whites. On multivariable analysis, incontinence, coma, dysphagia, cognitive impairment, and gaze paresis were independently associated with severe disability (BI <10) and death at 3 months. The extent of these findings indicates that an acute assessment of impairments and disability is necessary to determine the appropriate nursing and rehabilitation needs of patients with stroke.
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          Evaluating single-subject treatment research: lessons learned from the aphasia literature.

          The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however, it has been difficult to discern the relative potency of these treatments in a standardized manner. In this paper we describe an approach to quantify treatment outcomes for single-subject research studies using effect sizes. These values provide a means to compare treatment outcomes within and between individuals, as well as to compare the relative strength of various treatments. Effect sizes also can be aggregated in order to conduct meta-analyses of specific treatment approaches. Consideration is given to optimizing research designs and providing adequate data so that the value of treatment research is maximized.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
            Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
            Informa UK Limited
            0269-9206
            1464-5076
            July 09 2012
            July 09 2012
            August 2012
            : 26
            : 8
            : 681-694
            10.3109/02699206.2012.696173
            © 2012

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