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      Proteomic Biomarkers for the Detection of Endometrial Cancer


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          Endometrial cancer is the leading gynaecological malignancy in the western world and its incidence is rising in tandem with the global epidemic of obesity. Early diagnosis is key to improving survival, which at 5 years is less than 20% in advanced disease and over 90% in early-stage disease. As yet, there are no validated biological markers for its early detection. Advances in high-throughput technologies and machine learning techniques now offer unique and promising perspectives for biomarker discovery, especially through the integration of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and imaging data. Because the proteome closely mirrors the dynamic state of cells, tissues and organisms, proteomics has great potential to deliver clinically relevant biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. In this review, we present the current progress in endometrial cancer diagnostic biomarker discovery using proteomics. We describe the various mass spectrometry-based approaches and highlight the challenges inherent in biomarker discovery studies. We suggest novel strategies for endometrial cancer detection exploiting biologically important protein biomarkers and set the scene for future directions in endometrial cancer biomarker research.

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          Epigenome-wide association studies for common human diseases.

          Despite the success of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in identifying loci associated with common diseases, a substantial proportion of the causality remains unexplained. Recent advances in genomic technologies have placed us in a position to initiate large-scale studies of human disease-associated epigenetic variation, specifically variation in DNA methylation. Such epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) present novel opportunities but also create new challenges that are not encountered in GWASs. We discuss EWAS design, cohort and sample selections, statistical significance and power, confounding factors and follow-up studies. We also discuss how integration of EWASs with GWASs can help to dissect complex GWAS haplotypes for functional analysis.
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            Genomics, gene expression and DNA arrays.

            Experimental genomics in combination with the growing body of sequence information promise to revolutionize the way cells and cellular processes are studied. Information on genomic sequence can be used experimentally with high-density DNA arrays that allow complex mixtures of RNA and DNA to be interrogated in a parallel and quantitative fashion. DNA arrays can be used for many different purposes, most prominently to measure levels of gene expression (messenger RNA abundance) for tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. Measurements of gene expression and other applications of arrays embody much of what is implied by the term 'genomics'; they are broad in scope, large in scale, and take advantage of all available sequence information for experimental design and data interpretation in pursuit of biological understanding.
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              Data‐independent acquisition‐based SWATH ‐ MS for quantitative proteomics: a tutorial

              Abstract Many research questions in fields such as personalized medicine, drug screens or systems biology depend on obtaining consistent and quantitatively accurate proteomics data from many samples. SWATH‐MS is a specific variant of data‐independent acquisition (DIA) methods and is emerging as a technology that combines deep proteome coverage capabilities with quantitative consistency and accuracy. In a SWATH‐MS measurement, all ionized peptides of a given sample that fall within a specified mass range are fragmented in a systematic and unbiased fashion using rather large precursor isolation windows. To analyse SWATH‐MS data, a strategy based on peptide‐centric scoring has been established, which typically requires prior knowledge about the chromatographic and mass spectrometric behaviour of peptides of interest in the form of spectral libraries and peptide query parameters. This tutorial provides guidelines on how to set up and plan a SWATH‐MS experiment, how to perform the mass spectrometric measurement and how to analyse SWATH‐MS data using peptide‐centric scoring. Furthermore, concepts on how to improve SWATH‐MS data acquisition, potential trade‐offs of parameter settings and alternative data analysis strategies are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Cancers (Basel)
                Cancers (Basel)
                16 October 2019
                October 2019
                : 11
                : 10
                [1 ]Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, 5th Floor Research, St Mary’s Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL, UK; kelechi.njoku@ 123456manchester.ac.uk
                [2 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
                [3 ]Stoller Biomarker Discovery Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK; davide.chiasserini@ 123456manchester.ac.uk (D.C.); tony.whetton@ 123456manchester.ac.uk (A.D.W.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: emma.crosbie@ 123456manchester.ac.uk ; Tel.: +44-161-701-6942
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).


                endometrial cancer,diagnostic biomarkers,proteomics,mass spectrometry


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