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      Acute Effect of a Protein Supplement on Targeted Plasma Amino Acid Profile among Healthy Asian Indians: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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          Indians have a poor protein intake in terms of quantity as well as quality because of their predominantly cereal-based diet. However, there is limited information on circulatory amino acid levels in healthy Indians. Herein, we evaluated the acute effect of a protein supplement on the plasma levels of essential amino acids (EAAs) in healthy Indian adults, using targeted EAA analysis.


          In this double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy Indian adults were randomized to receive the test protein supplement (treatment arm, n = 10) or placebo (control arm, n = 10) with milk, after overnight fasting. After 7 days, the participants returned for the crossover treatment. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after protein/placebo consumption. Plasma EAA levels were estimated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of treatment on EAA levels. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.


          At baseline, mean plasma levels did not differ significantly between the two arms for any of the EAAs. In the treatment arm, the mean levels of all EAAs increased significantly from baseline to 60 min ( P < 0.01), with no significant change from 60 to 120 min. There was no significant change in amino acid levels in the control arm. The magnitude as well as percentage of increase from baseline to 60 min was significantly greater in the treatment arm than in the control arm for all EAAs.


          Compared to placebo, protein supplement increased circulatory amino acid levels in healthy Indians. The observed increase in EAA levels and its role in conjunction with exercise in both healthy and diseased states need to be further evaluated. This is the first dataset exploring targeted EAA profiles and the effect of a protein supplement among healthy Indians. The clinical trial is registered with CTRI/2018/12/016777.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years.

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            Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study.

            To test the hypothesis that muscle protein synthesis (MPS) is regulated by the concentration of extracellular amino acids, we investigated the dose-response relationship between the rate of human MPS and the concentrations of blood and intramuscular amino acids. We increased blood mixed amino acid concentrations by up to 240 % above basal levels by infusion of mixed amino acids (Aminosyn 15, 44-261 mg kg-1 h-1) in 21 healthy subjects, (11 men 10 women, aged 29 +/- 2 years) and measured the rate of incorporation of D5-phenylalanine or D3-leucine into muscle protein and blood and intramuscular amino acid concentrations. The relationship between the fold increase in MPS and blood essential amino acid concentration ([EAA], mM) was hyperbolic and fitted the equation MPS = (2.68 x [EAA])/(1.51 + [EAA]) (P < 0.01). The pattern of stimulation of myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic and mitochondrial protein was similar. There was no clear relationship between the rate of MPS and the concentration of intramuscular EAAs; indeed, when MPS was increasing most rapidly, the concentration of intramuscular EAAs was below basal levels. We conclude that the rates of synthesis of all classes of muscle proteins are acutely regulated by the blood [EAA] over their normal diurnal range, but become saturated at high concentrations. We propose that the stimulation of protein synthesis depends on the sensing of the concentration of extracellular, rather than intramuscular EAAs.
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              Muscle Protein Synthesis Measured by Stable Isotope Techniques in Man: The Effects of Feeding and Fasting


                Author and article information

                J Nutr Metab
                J Nutr Metab
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                27 May 2020
                : 2020
                1Division of Nutrition, St. John's Research Institute, Bengaluru, India
                2Health Care Nutrition Science & Medical Affairs, Nutricia International Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India
                3Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Population Health, St. John's Research Institute, Bengaluru, India
                4Department of Physiology, St. John's Medical College, Bengaluru, India
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: C. S. Johnston

                Copyright © 2020 Ammu Kurien et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: Nutricia International Private Limited
                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics


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