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      Is Open Access

      LTBP4 in Health and Disease

      review-article
      1 , 2 , 3 , 2 , *
      Genes
      MDPI
      LTBP4, TGFβ, elastogenesis, medicine

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          Abstract

          Latent transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-binding protein (LTBP) 4, a member of the LTBP family, shows structural homology with fibrillins. Both these protein types are characterized by calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like repeats interspersed with 8-cysteine domains. Based on its domain composition and distribution, LTBP4 is thought to adopt an extended structure, facilitating the linear deposition of tropoelastin onto microfibrils. In humans, mutations in LTBP4 result in autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1C, characterized by redundant skin, pulmonary emphysema, and valvular heart disease. LTBP4 is an essential regulator of TGFβ signaling and is related to development, immunity, injury repair, and diseases, playing a central role in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer progression. In this review, we focus on medical disorders or diseases that may be manipulated by LTBP4 in order to enhance the understanding of this protein.

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          Most cited references74

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          Accessories to the crime: functions of cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment.

          Mutationally corrupted cancer (stem) cells are the driving force of tumor development and progression. Yet, these transformed cells cannot do it alone. Assemblages of ostensibly normal tissue and bone marrow-derived (stromal) cells are recruited to constitute tumorigenic microenvironments. Most of the hallmarks of cancer are enabled and sustained to varying degrees through contributions from repertoires of stromal cell types and distinctive subcell types. Their contributory functions to hallmark capabilities are increasingly well understood, as are the reciprocal communications with neoplastic cancer cells that mediate their recruitment, activation, programming, and persistence. This enhanced understanding presents interesting new targets for anticancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Dystrophin: the protein product of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus.

            The protein product of the human Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus (DMD) and its mouse homolog (mDMD) have been identified by using polyclonal antibodies directed against fusion proteins containing two distinct regions of the mDMD cDNA. The DMD protein is shown to be approximately 400 kd and to represent approximately 0.002% of total striated muscle protein. This protein is also detected in smooth muscle (stomach). Muscle tissue isolated from both DMD-affected boys and mdx mice contained no detectable DMD protein, suggesting that these genetic disorders are homologous. Since mdx mice present no obvious clinical abnormalities, the identification of the mdx mouse as an animal model for DMD has important implications with regard to the etiology of the lethal DMD phenotype. We have named the protein dystrophin because of its identification via the isolation of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus.
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              Contextual determinants of TGFβ action in development, immunity and cancer

              Few cell signals match the impact of the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family in metazoan biology. TGFβ cytokines regulate cell fate decisions during development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration, and are major players in tumorigenesis, fibrotic disorders, immune malfunctions and various congenital diseases. The effects of the TGFβ family are mediated by a combinatorial set of ligands and receptors and by a common set of receptor-activated mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (SMAD) transcription factors, yet the effects can differ dramatically depending on the cell type and the conditions. Recent progress has illuminated a model of TGFβ action in which SMADs bind genome-wide in partnership with lineage-determining transcription factors and additionally integrate inputs from other pathways and the chromatin to trigger specific cellular responses. These new insights clarify the operating logic of the TGFβ pathway in physiology and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Genes (Basel)
                Genes (Basel)
                genes
                Genes
                MDPI
                2073-4425
                23 May 2021
                June 2021
                : 12
                : 6
                : 795
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Renal Division, National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch, Douliu 640, Taiwan; chitingsu@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, National Taiwan University Cancer Center Hospital, Taipei 106, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: urbanz@ 123456pitt.edu ; Tel.: +1-412-648-8269
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2926-3950
                Article
                genes-12-00795
                10.3390/genes12060795
                8224675
                34071145
                51f17b92-2746-4a70-a846-211446c948a2
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 15 April 2021
                : 21 May 2021
                Categories
                Review

                ltbp4,tgfβ,elastogenesis,medicine
                ltbp4, tgfβ, elastogenesis, medicine

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