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      Pyralis cardinalis, a charismatic new species related to P. regalis [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, first recognized in Finland (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

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      Nota Lepidopterologica

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The informal Pyralis regalis complex, including species of the genus Pyralis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pyralidae), with a bright white or silvery pattern on the forewing, is reviewed, supplemented by observations of the externally distinguished P. perversalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1849), which also exhibits similarities in genitalia and DNA barcodes. We describe Pyralis cardinalis Kaila, Huemer, Mutanen, Tyllinen & Wikström, sp. nov., based on specimens ranging from Denmark and Sweden in the West to Japan and South Korea in the East. A neotype is designated for the predominantly South European P. regalis [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775. Lectotypes are designated for Asopia kacheticalis Christoph, 1893 and Pyralis princeps Butler, 1889. Pyralis regalis ssp. sagarrai Leraut, 2005 is considered a valid species, stat. nov.

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            bold: The Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org)

            The Barcode of Life Data System (bold) is an informatics workbench aiding the acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records. By assembling molecular, morphological and distributional data, it bridges a traditional bioinformatics chasm. bold is freely available to any researcher with interests in DNA barcoding. By providing specialized services, it aids the assembly of records that meet the standards needed to gain BARCODE designation in the global sequence databases. Because of its web-based delivery and flexible data security model, it is also well positioned to support projects that involve broad research alliances. This paper provides a brief introduction to the key elements of bold, discusses their functional capabilities, and concludes by examining computational resources and future prospects.
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              A DNA-Based Registry for All Animal Species: The Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

              Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs), these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL) and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU) algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                November 10 2020
                November 10 2020
                : 43
                : 337-364
                Article
                10.3897/nl.43.54916
                © 2020

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