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      Time to Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Uptake Over Twelve Months Postpartum: Findings of the Yam Daabo Cluster Randomized-Controlled Trial in Burkina Faso and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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          An earlier adoption of contraceptive methods during the postpartum period could help women to extend the inter-pregnancy interval. This article aimed to determine and compare the timing of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) use (ie, intrauterine device and implant) in Burkina Faso (BF) and DR Congo (DRC) between the intervention and control groups.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 1120 postpartum women were enrolled and followed up to 12 months postpartum. We used Yam-Daabo trial data which was a multi-intervention, single-blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial done in primary health-care centres (clusters) in both countries. Centres were randomly allocated to receive the six-component intervention or standard antenatal and postnatal care in matched pairs (1:1). We did a secondary analysis using Royston-Parmar’s semi-parametric model to estimate the effect of the interventions on the median time of LARC uptake.


          Our analysis included 567 postpartum women in BF (284 in the intervention group and 283 in the control group) and 553 in the DRC (274 in the intervention group and 279 in the control group). After showing an increase in family planning use in these two African countries, Yam Daabo’s interventions showed a reduction of the median time of LARCs adoption in the intervention group compared to the control group in both countries (difference of 39 days in Burkina Faso; difference of 86 days in the DR Congo).


          The Yam Daabo intervention package resulted in increased and earlier adoption of LARC in rural settings in Burkina Faso and urban settings in DR Congo. Such an intervention could be relevant in similar contexts in Sub-Saharan Africa with very high fertility rates and high unmet needs for contraception.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Further Development of Flexible Parametric Models for Survival Analysis

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            The Effect of Integrating Family Planning with a Maternal and Newborn Health Program on Postpartum Contraceptive Use and Optimal Birth Spacing in Rural Bangladesh.

            Meeting postpartum contraceptive need remains a major challenge in developing countries, where the majority of women deliver at home. Using a quasi-experimental trial design, we examine the effect of integrating family planning (FP) with a community-based maternal and newborn health (MNH) program on improving postpartum contraceptive use and reducing short birth intervals <24 months. In this two-arm trial, community health workers (CHWs) provided integrated FP counseling and services during home visits along with their outreach MNH activities in the intervention arm, but provided only MNH services in the control arm. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in the intervention arm was 15 percent higher than in the control arm at 12 months, and the difference in CPRs remained statistically significant throughout the 24 months of observation. The short birth interval of less than 24 months was significantly lower in the intervention arm. The study demonstrates that it is feasible and effective to integrate FP services into a community-based MNH care program for improving postpartum contraceptive use and lengthening birth intervals.
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              Modern contraceptive use, unmet need, and demand satisfied among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the Family Planning 2020 initiative: a systematic analysis using the Family Planning Estimation Tool

              Summary Background The London Summit on Family Planning in 2012 inspired the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative and the 120×20 goal of having an additional 120 million women and adolescent girls become users of modern contraceptives in 69 of the world's poorest countries by the year 2020. Working towards achieving 120 × 20 is crucial for ultimately achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of universal access and satisfying demand for reproductive health. Thus, a performance assessment is required to determine countries' progress. Methods An updated version of the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) was used to construct estimates and projections of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), unmet need for, and demand satisfied with modern methods of contraception among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the FP2020 initiative. We assessed current levels of family planning indicators and changes between 2012 and 2017. A counterfactual analysis was used to assess if recent levels of mCPR exceeded pre-FP2020 expectations. Findings In 2017, the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the FP2020 focus countries was 45·7% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 42·4–49·1), unmet need for modern methods was 21·6% (19·7–23·9), and the demand satisfied with modern methods was 67·9% (64·4–71·1). Between 2012 and 2017 the number of women of reproductive age who are married or in a union who use modern methods increased by 28·8 million (95% UI 5·8–52·5). At the regional level, Asia has seen the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union grow from 51·0% (95% UI 48·5–53·4) to 51·8% (47·3–56·5) between 2012 and 2017, which is slow growth, particularly when compared with a change from 23·9% (22·9–25·0) to 28·5% (26·8–30·2) across Africa. At the country level, based on a counterfactual analysis, we found that 61% of the countries that have made a commitment to FP2020 exceeded pre-FP2020 expectations for modern contraceptive use. Country success stories include rapid increases in Kenya, Mozambique, Malawi, Lesotho, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Chad relative to what was expected in 2012. Interpretation Whereas the estimate of additional users up to 2017 for women of reproductive age who are married or in a union would suggest that the 120 × 20 goal for all women is overly ambitious, the aggregate outcomes mask the diversity in progress at the country level. We identified countries with accelerated progress, that provide inspiration and guidance on how to increase the use of family planning and inform future efforts, especially in countries where progress has been poor. Funding The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, through grant support to the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Avenir Health.

                Author and article information

                Open Access J Contracept
                Open Access J Contracept
                Open Access Journal of Contraception
                09 March 2021
                : 12
                : 73-82
                [1 ]Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS) , Département Biomédical et Santé Publique, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
                [2 ]Institut Africain de Santé Publique , Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
                [3 ]University of Technology , Faculty of Health, Australian Centre for Public and Population Health Research, Sydney, Australia
                [4 ]Université Joseph KI-ZERBO, Unité de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé , Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
                [5 ]World Health Organization , Department of Reproductive Health Research, Geneva, Switzerland
                [6 ]Université de Kinshasa, Ecole de Santé Publique , Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Abou Coulibaly Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS) , 03 B.P. 7047, Ouagadougou, 03, Burkina FasoTel +226 71 40 77 89 Email samsoncoul@gmail.com
                © 2021 Coulibaly et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 23, Pages: 10
                Funded by: (Government of France);
                The study funder (Government of France) had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing the Article.
                Original Research


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