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      Taxonomic revision of Australian Copelatus Erichson, 1832 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

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          The genus Copelatus in Australia is revised and nine species are recognised. One new species, Copelatus martinbaehri sp. nov., is described from Papua New Guinea (Central Province) and Cape York Peninsula (Iron Range NP and Mt Tozer). Copelatus divisus Watts, 1978, syn. nov., is considered a junior synonym of C. portior Guignot, 1956, described from New Guinea. Species delimitation is based on the morphological characters and Cox1 data. All species are (re)described, and their important species characters (median lobes, parameres, habitus and colour patterns) are illustrated. A key to all nine species is provided. The known distribution and habitat preferences of each species are outlined briefly. In Australia, all nine species are distributed in the northern half of the continent. Four species are also reported from New Guinea: in addition to C. martinbaehri sp. nov., we record C. clarki Sharp, 1882 for the first time from southern New Guinea, and consider literature records of C. irregularis W.J. Macleay, 1871 and C. marginatus Sharp, 1882 from New Guinea as doubtful. Copelatus portior is widely distributed in Australasia, while C. tenebrosus is widely distributed in the Indomalayan and Australasian realms. All Australian Copelatus are confirmed to be lentic, found in a large variety of stagnant water, mainly in lowland areas up to 250 m.

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          Most cited references 31

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          MtDNA phylogeny and biogeography of Copelatinae, a highly diverse group of tropical diving beetles (Dytiscidae).

          Copelatinae is a diverse lineage of diving beetles (Dytiscidae) frequently encountered in wet tropical and subtropical forests, but phylogenetic relationships are very poorly understood. We performed a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of this worldwide distributed group based on 50 species including a representative sample of major taxonomic groups and biogeographical regions. DNA sequences were obtained for the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and 16S rRNA, for a total of 1575 aligned nucleotide positions. We found Copelatinae to be monophyletic, placed in a derived position and not sister to all remaining dytiscids, as had been suggested by earlier authors. The largest genus, Copelatus with some 460 known species was paraphyletic with respect to the smaller genera Lacconectus and Aglymbus. Among the major lineages of Copelatus, the subgenus Papuadytes was consistently recovered as sister to all other species (including Lacconectus and Aglymbus) with the possible exception of two western Palearctic taxa. We propose that the subgenus Papuadytes is removed from Copelatus and assigned generic status. Likewise, the two western Palearctic Copelatus are removed from this genus, and assigned the available genus name Liopterus. Our best phylogenetic hypothesis retrieved Afrotropical and New Guinean plus Australian species of Copelatus as monophyletic. Asian species were paraphyletic with respect to a species from Sulawesi which grouped with the species from New Guinea. Asian species were also paraphyletic with respect to Oriental Lacconectus, which was grouped with a clade of Neotropical species. Neotropical Copelatus form at least two separate lineages. The biogeographical evolution of Papuadytes is consistent with the relative age of the landmasses in the Austral region. Basal species are Australian, and successively derived ones are from New Caledonia and New Guinea. One species apparently dispersed from New Caledonia to China. Assuming a molecular clock and using a standard calibration of 2% divergence/MY the origin of Copelatinae is estimated to be between 85 and 95 MY.
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            On aquatic carnivorous Coleoptera or Dytiscidae.

             Sharp,  D SHARP,  D Sharp (1882)
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              Ancient associations of aquatic beetles and tank bromeliads in the Neotropical forest canopy.

              Water reservoirs formed by the leaf axils of bromeliads are a highly derived system for nutrient and water capture that also house a diverse fauna of invertebrate specialists. Here we investigate the origin and specificity of bromeliad-associated insects using Copelatinae diving beetles (Dytiscidae). This group is widely distributed in small water bodies throughout tropical forests, but a subset of species encountered in bromeliad tanks is strictly specialized to this habitat. An extensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Neotropical Copelatinae places these bromeliadicolous species in at least three clades nested within other Copelatus. One lineage is morphologically distinct, and its origin was estimated to reach back to 12-23 million years ago, comparable to the age of the tank habitat itself. Species of this clade in the Atlantic rainforest of southern Brazil and mountain ranges of northern Venezuela and Trinidad show marked phylogeographical structure with up to 8% mtDNA divergence, possibly indicating allopatric speciation. The other two invasions of bromeliad water tanks are more recent, and haplotype distributions within species are best explained by recent expansion into newly formed habitat. Hence, bromeliad tanks create a second stratum of aquatic freshwater habitat independent of that on the ground but affected by parallel processes of species and population diversification at various temporal scales, possibly reflecting the paleoclimatic history of neotropical forests.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                14 November 2019
                : 889
                : 81-152
                [1 ] SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung, Münchhausenstrasse 21, D-81247 München, Germany SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München Germany
                [2 ] Naturhistorisches Museum, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria Naturhistorisches Museum Vienna Austria
                [3 ] Department of Entomology, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, CZ-193 00 Praha 9, Horní Počernice, Czech Republic Department of Entomology, National Museum Praha Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Lars Hendrich ( hendrich@ 123456snsb.de )

                Academic editor: M. Michat

                Lars Hendrich, Helena Shaverdo, Jiří Hájek, Michael Balke

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung – the Austrian Science Fund
                Research Article


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