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      The Needs of Victims: An Empirical Categorization Based on Interpersonal Conflicts


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          As a consequence of interpersonal conflicts, needs of the victimized are violated. These needs have to be addressed in order to achieve reconciliation. Due to the heterogeneity of need categories in scholarly research, we scrutinized which need categories can be empirically identified. 478 participants reported on an experienced interpersonal conflict. They responded to 109 items evaluating the perceived need violation for the conflict they reported on. By means of exploratory factor analysis with a random sub-sample (n 1 = 239), six need categories were extracted. These are the need for respect, the need for meaning, the need for acceptance, the need for pleasure, the need for self-efficacy, and the need for safety. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that these needs replicated in the second random sub-sample (n 2 = 239) as well as across sub-samples with people who had experienced an interpersonal conflict of lower severity of transgression (n A = 257) or higher severity of transgression (n B = 221). In addition, each of the need categories mediated the relationship between the severity of transgression and the desire for revenge. Yet, the results for the two need categories “pleasure” and “safety” have to be interpreted with caution due to a lack of scalar invariance. Among the other four need categories, respect was identified as the only independent mediator variable. Implications for the transformation of interpersonal conflict and further scholarly inquiries are discussed.

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          Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives

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            Comparative fit indexes in structural models.

            P. Bentler (1990)
            Normed and nonnormed fit indexes are frequently used as adjuncts to chi-square statistics for evaluating the fit of a structural model. A drawback of existing indexes is that they estimate no known population parameters. A new coefficient is proposed to summarize the relative reduction in the noncentrality parameters of two nested models. Two estimators of the coefficient yield new normed (CFI) and nonnormed (FI) fit indexes. CFI avoids the underestimation of fit often noted in small samples for Bentler and Bonett's (1980) normed fit index (NFI). FI is a linear function of Bentler and Bonett's non-normed fit index (NNFI) that avoids the extreme underestimation and overestimation often found in NNFI. Asymptotically, CFI, FI, NFI, and a new index developed by Bollen are equivalent measures of comparative fit, whereas NNFI measures relative fit by comparing noncentrality per degree of freedom. All of the indexes are generalized to permit use of Wald and Lagrange multiplier statistics. An example illustrates the behavior of these indexes under conditions of correct specification and misspecification. The new fit indexes perform very well at all sample sizes.
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              Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance


                Author and article information

                J Soc Polit Psych
                Journal of Social and Political Psychology
                J. Soc. Polit. Psych.
                04 September 2013
                : 1
                : 1
                : 29-50
                [a ]University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany
                [b ]University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
                [3]Department of Psychology, Clark University, Worcester, MA, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Working Group Social Psychology, Department of Psychology, Philipps University Marburg, Gutenbergstraße 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany. johanna.kirchhoff@ 123456uni-marburg.de
                Copyright @

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 12 December 2012
                : 20 June 2013
                Original Research Reports

                need violation,victimization,interpersonal conflict,need categories,needs
                need violation, victimization, interpersonal conflict, need categories, needs


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