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      Relationship between Television Viewing and Language Delay in Toddlers: Evidence from a Korea National Cross-Sectional Survey

      1 , 2 , * , 3

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          This study investigated the relationship between 2-year-old children’s exposure to TV and language delay.

          Methods

          The subjects of this study were 1,778 toddlers (906 males and 872 females) who participated in the Panel Study on Korean Children conducted in 2010. The linguistic ability of the toddlers was measured with the K-ASQ (Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaire). The relationship between the amount of young children’s exposure to TV and language delay was analyzed with Poisson regression.

          Results

          The average daily TV watching time of 2-year-old Korean toddlers in this study was 1.21 hours. After all confounding variables were adjusted, toddlers with over 2 hours and less than 3 hours of TV watching time had 2.7 times more risk (RR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.13–6.65) of language delay than those with less than 1 hour of TV watching time. Those with more than 3 hours of TV watching time had approximately 3 times (RR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.12–8.21) more risk (p<0.05). In addition, the risk of language delay increased proportionately with the increase in toddlers’ TV watching time (p = 0.004).

          Conclusion

          Two-year-old Korean toddlers’ average daily TV watching time of more than 2 hours was related with language delay.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 7

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          Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children.

          Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were > or = 1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 1.09 [1.02-1.16]), respectively. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.
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            Associations between media viewing and language development in children under age 2 years.

            To test the association of media exposure with language development in children under age 2 years.
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              Teaching by listening: the importance of adult-child conversations to language development.

              To test the independent association of adult language input, television viewing, and adult-child conversations on language acquisition among infants and toddlers. Two hundred seventy-five families of children aged 2 to 48 months who were representative of the US census were enrolled in a cross-sectional study of the home language environment and child language development (phase 1). Of these, a representative sample of 71 families continued for a longitudinal assessment over 18 months (phase 2). In the cross-sectional sample, language development scores were regressed on adult word count, television viewing, and adult-child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes. In the longitudinal sample, phase 2 language development scores were regressed on phase 1 language development, as well as phase 1 adult word count, television viewing, and adult-child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes. In fully adjusted regressions, the effects of adult word count were significant when included alone but were partially mediated by adult-child conversations. Television viewing when included alone was significant and negative but was fully mediated by the inclusion of adult-child conversations. Adult-child conversations were significant when included alone and retained both significance and magnitude when adult word count and television exposure were included. Television exposure is not independently associated with child language development when adult-child conversations are controlled. Adult-child conversations are robustly associated with healthy language development. Parents should be encouraged not merely to provide language input to their children through reading or storytelling, but also to engage their children in two-sided conversations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                18 March 2015
                2015
                : 10
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Speech Language Pathology & Audiology, Nambu University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Speech-Language Pathology Center, Nambu University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Sun Yat-sen University, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: HB SH. Performed the experiments: HB. Analyzed the data: HB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HB SH. Wrote the paper: HB SH.

                [¤a]

                Current Address: Department of Speech Language Pathology & Audiology, School of Public Health, Nambu University, Cheomdanro 23, Gwansan-gu, Gwangju, Republic of Korea

                [¤b]

                Current Address: Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Olympic-ro 44, Songpa-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea

                Article
                PONE-D-14-41026
                10.1371/journal.pone.0120663
                4365020
                25785449

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                The data is owned by the Korea Institute of Child Care and Education (KICCE). The KICCE's data can be used with authorization of the KICCE after the submission of brief research plan and data use agreement. Please direct requests for the data to http://panel.kicce.re.kr/ (e-mail: panel@ 123456kicce.re.kr , phone: 82-02-398-7766).

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